The state and government are distinguished in terms of functions, structures, duties, composition and the nature of their powers. The state is permanent, whilst government changes, altered or modified and even overthrown. The state employs bureaucrats who employed based on merit and who are politically neutral to conduct its business whilst government consists of elected officials who represent partisan sympathies. The state is more extensive than the government. The state is characterized by state institutions, exercise of legitimacy, territorial association and sovereignty whilst government is composed of three arms namely legislature, executive and judiciary. However the state and government are interrelated as the government acts in the name of the state to make public choices. The state cannot exist without a government. Government represents the state in international politics. Government is the brains of the state hence they are mutually related and bad relations as government do what is contrary to its people. Definition of key terms
The state according to Heywood (2000:39) argues, that the state is a political association that establishes sovereign jurisdiction within defined territorial borders and exercises authority through a set of state institutions. Khan and Mc Niven (1999:26) defined a state as symbol of social and political organization of a large group of people and states contain population, territory, government and sovereignty.Shivelly (2008:54) argue that a state is a political unit that has ultimate responsibility for the conduct of its own affairs for example Brazil, Zimbabwe or Zambia. The Jewish people do not make a state since it is not a political unit but Israel is the state. Government is according Everyman’s Library (1973:228), it is an intermediate body set up between the subjects and the sovereign to secure their mutual correspondence, charged with execution of the laws and maintenance of liberty both civil and political. Dean (2010:17) defines government as the conduct of conduct which means to lead, direct or to guide a state.Shivelly (2008:62) contends that government is the group within the state who has ultimate authority to act on behalf of the state. Levine and Cornwell (1972:1) are of t...