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Communities And Local Government Highlight Water Essay

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Water covers about 70% of the earth's surface but only 1% of that water is clean and suitable for drinking. That is why water is so important. However, because in most countries clean water can be accessed very easily, people usually take it for granted and have little or no concern for its availability. An average person in the United Kingdom uses about 150 litres of water per day and the demand keeps on rising by 1% every year since 1930. In a typical UK household the average use of water is 275 litres of which two thirds are used in the bathroom, either for flushing the toilet or for baths/showers (Save The Rain). Moreover, it is estimated that an office demands about 62 litres of water per head of which, around 63% is intended for uses such as toilet flushing. According to an article by Guardian, the consumption of water per UK citizen increases when "hidden factors are included" (meaning the production of food and clothing) to 4,645 litres (Felicity, 2008). The above, along with the fact that UK has less available water per person compared to most other European countries, means the situation is very bad for the UK and explains why communities and governments are concerned with water efficiency. Additionally, during 2007-2008, about 3 billion litres of water per day were wasted (figure includes Wales) due to leakages. This accounts for one fifth of the total distribution. However, the percentage has fallen by 35% since 1990-1994 and 1999-2000 but it has remained constant since then. In addition, in 2008 there were 723 serious pollution incidents that affected water, as well as land and air. About 10% of these incidents were caused by the sewage and water industries. (DEFRA, 2009) It can be seen that most of the clean/drinkable water used, is for purposes where grey-water and/or rainwater can be used and also, a percentage is lost due to leakages. This is why water efficiency is a key priority for communities and local governments.

The built environment plays a key role to water efficiency. As areas get more urbanised, the water demand increases, especially during hot periods when water is limited. This, over the time has led to the creation of an artificial water cycle which affects the local drainage pattern and other hy...

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