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Management In Government Essay

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Table of Contents
Life Cycle Leadership Theory 3
Situation and Leadership 4
Leadership Styles in Government 5
Situational Leadership Style 6
Level of Development 6
Corporate Management 7
Standardization 7
New Products with Reward-to-Risk Ratio 8
Budgeting 9
Research and Development 10
Controlling Manufacturing Costs 10
Acquisitions and mergers 12
Vendors to Improve Costs 12
Utilizing Consultants 12
Managing Inventories 13
Controlling Administrative Expenses 13
Conclusion 14
Systematic Capacity Building in Institutions 15
Stakeholders’ Engagement in Capacity Development 15
Determining capacity of needs and assets 15
Formulation of Capacity Development response 15
Implementation of Capacity Development response 17
Information innovatively and transformative process for public sector management 17
Critically evaluate how change effect resource management 18
HR Management in Government 18
Corporate Resource Management Process in Government 19
Initiative and originality in planning and implementing tasks 19
References 20

According to majority of the researchers the leadership life cycle in government is different than other organizations. Before explaining further about leadership life cycle in government, we will briefly describe the life cycle leadership theory here.

Life Cycle Leadership Theory
Kenneth H. Blanchard and Paul Hersey have developed the life cycle leadership theory and according to them a leader must understand the maturity level of its subordinates before adopting any appropriate style of leadership to lead them and in this case maturity of the subordinates stands for desire of individuals towards their achievements, their acceptance level of responsibility, their previous level of experience.

As per life cycle theory there are four different phases that can also be adopted for government organization:

1st Phase: High Task and Low Relationship
There is always a first day for every employee in the organization and most of the time they need some supervision and direction to perform their designated task. After a while, they understand the working and social environment of the organization, the policies and procedures that needs to be followed. A leadership task oriented approach is suitable and recommended for this kind of situation. In a government organization these task could be financial and security related.

2nd Phase: High Task and High Relationship
The second phase of the leadership lifecycle starts when there exist coordination and collaboration between leader and follower or a manager and subordinates. There becomes a personal and professional relationship between them. In this situation a task oriented approach of leadership remains vital for the subordinates to learn and fulfill their job designated task. A leader or manager start trusting the subordinates because of that relationship thus he can use employee oriented approach to carry out certain tasks.

3rd Phase: Low Task and High Relationship
After spending good amount of time with the subordinates and ascertaining their abilities and disabilities, their performance and working style becomes evident. They can easily be supervised and with their experience they get confidence to get more responsibility. The same way a government can be more supportive to the people working under it and encourage to achieve certain objective with lesser supervision.

4th Phase: High Task and High Relationship
When reached to a certain level of experience and working duration together, the subordinates have reached to a point where they are self directing need lesser instruction or no instructions to perform a task. They need lesser support from the managers or leaders as they become experienced enough to work independently. By setting up the direction to perform certain task, they don’t need supervision now.

Situation and Leadership
As stated by the different theories of leadership that a specific leadership style can fit to a specific situation and one can not apply the same leadership style to every situation. Mostly Leadership styles are fixed for person to person and to change and adopt a new style is always a difficult choice. A leader has to be chosen according to the demand of the task and his / her capabilities and style. The life cycle theorist suggests that a leader can change stance or style by the time as subordinates becomes familiar with his / her style and with the passage of time they got experience to deal with the situation independently. Leader of the government or managers should analyze and monitor the factors that may diminish or enhance motivation factor for a particular task. They should adopt the required style to provide the right motivation level that subordinates needed to perform assigned task.

Leadership Styles in Government
Like other organizations, government can have similar leadership style. A telling style can be adopted when individuals or groups needed just one way instructions, commands, and communication to get and understand their roles to perform a task or tasks. A selling style can be adopted when people do need two way communication and they are guided with a socio emotional factor so that they can influenced complete that task with full devotion. A participating style of leadership can be adopted when there is a shared decision making approach required for a task. Here, there is a bit close relationship behavior observed between the leader / manager and subordinates. The Delegating style of leadership is adopted when the subordinates are adequately equipped with the skills required to perform a task. The leader or manager in this case usually monitor the progress of the task and play a role when only needed. None of these style is perfect for every situation as there are different demand for different situation with different set of subordinates. A leader or manager has to be flexible enough to adopt one or more style in order to perform a task successfully.

Situational Leadership Style
Blanchard and Hersey both remained agreed until 1977 on the original Situation theory of Leadership and after that Blanchard explained Situational Leadership Theory as Situational Approach for people management and his followers continued using this Situational Approach to Manage People and in 1985 they revised it to Situation Leadership II approach. Whilst Hersey used only Situational Leadership instead of Situat...

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