Essays /

General Pervez Musharraf And His Government Essay

Essay preview

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Selection and Significance of the Topic
The topic has been chosen by our group as Pakistan’s stance in the sensitive international community rests with the leadership of President Pervez Musharraf. His takeover was one-of-a-kind in the annals of Pakistan: a military regime yet no imposition of Martial Law. The coup, unlike previous ones, took everyone by surprise. Further, rumours of the coup by General Musharraf being planned were dismissed. The change in power was at a very critical and precarious time when there was a criminalization of the political system and growing economic adversity; Pakistan was being labeled as a failing state. Though democratically elected, Nawaz Sharif failed to provide a transparent administration. To the people of Pakistan, army intervention was the only way to escape a sham democracy. The fact was reinforced that the stature of army is powerful and preeminent in the country’s complex power structure. How a leader from a military background was able to improve the deteriorating domestic situation and steer the country away from foreign suspicions is significant in all respects.

Relevance of topic to the field of Study
The main objectives of the nation-states are survival, continuation and multiplication. With regard to the fact that Pakistan was being termed as a ‘failing state’, it was unable to come up to the core objectives of nation-states. After General Musharraf took reins of the country, Pakistan was able to progress so much so that it stands today as one of the freest Muslim countries in the world with a totally-not to say stridently-independent Press and complete freedom of association. Although, military cover exists, Pakistan’s civil institutions are functioning as they have been previously. This has rarely been the case when military regimes exist.

Central Questions
A range of questions have been addressed through this research. Primarily, the challenges faced by General Musharraf and how well he has been able to tackle them are addressed in this paper. Thus, the salient questions are as follows:

Question: 1
How crucial were the circumstances under which Musharraf took over the country?

Question: 2
What were the immediate challenges faced by the Government of Musharraf?

Question: 3
Has the Government of Musharraf been successful in improving domestic and foreign ties while not deviating from the defense of the country?

Question: 4
Regarding popular belief that Human Rights suffer under a military regime, how efficiently has the present Government encountered this?

Central Argument
This paper aims to critically analyze the performance of the country when the democratic government was dissolved and the army took over the country. The democratic government had failed to deliver the most fundamental rights and recklessly attempted a coup against the General to establish ascendancy over the army. The result was the countercoup. By reviewing the circumstances which led to a sound and bloodless coup, the study intends to establish that the take-over by the army was a counter-coup.

The paper aims at analyzing Pakistan under the leadership of President Musharraf by studying the scenario within the country and with other countries, particularly the United States of America and India.

Methodology
The methodology adopted by the group for analyzing this topic has been through the use of the theoretical framework of the concept of the prosperity of the country does not depend on the nature of rule but the transparency and dedication of the government. Musharraf has strived to build a nation and place the nation before taking any decisions. A bloodless coup was the result of which General Musharraf came into power. Samuel P. Huntington has given the concept of ‘bloodless coups’ in his research.[i]

Organization of Study
The study has been divided into five chapters. The detail is as follows: Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Countercoup: Circumstances and Challenges
Chapter 3: Scenario within Pakistan
Chapter 4: Pakistan and the World
Chapter 5: Fundamental Rights

Since the topic is huge, our group has chosen to address a few important aspects of the regime of President Musharraf. The first chapter introduces the topic along with the central argument and significance of the study. The second chapter begins the study with an overview of the conditions which led to the events in late 1999 and the pressing challenges faced by General Musharraf. How General Musharraf dealt with the domestic scenario-particularly the political, social and economical aspects-and the relations with the world-particularly America and India-are elaborated in the next two chapters. To what extent are the fundamental rights provided to the people of Pakistan is discussed in the last chapter.

Survey of Existing Literature
During the research for this project an extensive study of the secondary sources-which include books, on-line research papers and newspaper articles-was carried out. These incorporate the following:

1.
2. Abdul Shakoor Khakwani, Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan: The Case of Recent Military Intervention and Its Implications for Pakistan’s Security Milieu, ACDIS 2003 3. Iftikhar H. Malik, Pakistan in 2000: Starting Anew or Stalemate? Asian Survey 2000 4. Sadanand Dhume, The Friday Times: May 7, 1999, Lahore

5. Pakistan Almanac 2002-2003
6.

Primary Resources
In our primary research we studied the memoir of President Musharraf: In the Line of Fire, in detail.

CHAPTER 2

COUNTERCOUP: CIRCUMSTANCES AND CHALLENGES

On 12th October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf took full control of Pakistan in a bloodless military coup. Pakistan had come to a point where it was facing uncertainty, political turmoil and instability, under the leadership of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

Domestic Disturbances

Nawaz Sharif’s government had been accused of violations of human rights and the mismanagement of the economy. Law and order was in shambles. Shootings and killings were the order of the day, in particular in Karachi. The unmistakable signs of a nervous government were visible when peace demonstrations were not allowed and opposition senators were arrested in Karachi.

The people of Pakistan had elected Nawaz Sharif largely for his pledge to revive the economy, but after about two and a half years of his tenure, foreign investment was drying up, Pakistan’s currency had been devalued substantially due to which prices were escalating, foreign debt mounted to $32 billion and unemployment was rising. All social indicators- health, education, income-were extremely low and continuously deteriorating. Poverty has risen to alarming levels: from 18% to 34%.

The Great Divide: The Kargil Issue

The turning point in the governing period of PM Nawaz Sharif was the Kargil issue. Kargil would have proved significant in forcing India to negotiate seriously on Kashmir, if only the political leadership had known how to take advantage of it. The Pakistani military believed they could finally score a significant victory over India.

During the earlier part of the conflict, India was caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. Within days of pledging support to the campaign, PM Nawaz Sharif succumbed to US pressure and accepted an unfavorable and unconditional withdrawal. The war ended in disaster for Pakistan which lost not only the military battle but also paid dearly on the political and diplomatic fronts. Apart from the humiliation suffered internationally, the estimated cost of the Kargil operation is $ 380 million which formed a significant part of the annual fiscal expenditure on the already burdened economy.

The Kargil episode resulted in the eventual distrust between the Prime Minister and General Musharraf. Both had wanted to place Kashmir as a political and military issue to the World. The Kargil initiated succeeded in doing so but the Prime Minister came under external political pressure. Rather than deriving strength from National Solidarity, he blamed the army and denied any involvement in this issue.

The Last Straw: The Hijacking and Dismissal

“And who would believe that the chief of army staff, having represented Pakistan in Sri Lanka, upon his return was denied landing in his own country. Instead circumstances were created which could have forced our plane to either land in India or crash…”

President Musharraf Oct 17, 1999 BBC News

PM Nawaz Sharif ordered to divert a commercial flight (coming from Sri Lanka) carrying about 200 passengers including General Pervez Musharraf and not allowing it to land at any airfield in Pakistan. The plane was suggested to head to India, Iran or the Middle East. Owing to the scanty fuel, the plane could only land in India, a country with which Pakistan has shared a history of animosity and tension. Landing a commercial flight in India and that too carrying the Chief of Army Staff is preposterous in every way.

The same day, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempted to dismiss Musharraf while he was out of the country and appoint Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Director Khwaja Ziauddin in his place. Senior Army generals remained loyal to their commander and refused to accept General Musharraf's dismissal. Thus, the army retaliated on this brute trespassing of authority. Consequently, the plane landed at its destination with allegedly seven minutes of fuel to spare. This is the counter-coup of the army.

The PM’s decision of dismissing the Chief of Army Staff is questionable: an army chief, also a constitutional appointee, cannot be dismissed without giving him a justified cause and due process. Worse, the General’s dismissal was announced in Pakistan when he was not present in the country.

PM Nawaz Sharif staged a coup by attempting to remove General Pervez Musharraf. PM Sharif’s untenable decision of not al...

Read more

Keywords

-2003 .. /press/press_dec_12_2k1.htm /prforeignvisitdetail.aspx?nprforeignvisitid=392&nyear=2006&nmonth=11 1 10 100 11 11.18 110 12 12th 138th 13th 14 144 15 16 17 174 18 1950s 1953 1954 1955 1961 1971 1973 1990 1993 1998 1999 2 2.5 20 200 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 20th 25 28th 3 300 302 32 34 350 36 38 380 4 48 5 508 6 65 7 7.5 700 8 8th 9 9/11 abdul abid abl absenc absorb accept access accid accomplish accord account accumul accus acdi achiev acquir across act action activ actual ad adb addit address adequ administr admiss adopt advani advantag advers advic affair affect afford afghan afghanistan aftermath agenc agenda aghast ago agra agreement aid aim airbas airfield airlin al al-qaeda alarm alert align alleg allevi alli allianc allow almanac almost along alreadi also although alway america american amid among amount analyz anew animos annal announc annual annum anoth anti anti-terror anticip anyon anyth anywher apart appal appear appoint appointe apprehens arduous area argument arm armi around arrest articl articles-wa artifici ascend asian ask aspect aspects-and assembl assess assist associ assum assur asylum atal atta atta-ur-rehman attack attain attempt attent attitud australia author autonomi avail avoid award away aziz back background balanc ban bank bankruptci base basic battl bbc becam becom began begin behari behind belief believ benazir benefit besid best better bhutto bias bill billion bin blame bleak bloodless board bodi bold book boost border bottleneck bound brainwash bribe bring broaden broke broken brute build burden bureau buri bus bush busi business-friend businessmen cabinet call came campaign canada cannot capac capit captur care carri case caught caus ceas cease-fir cement cento centr central chairman challeng chamber chang channel chapter character charg checker chief child children chosen circumst citizen civil civil-militari civilian claim clash class claus cleans clear coalit cogen cogniz cohes cold collaps collect collector combat come command commensur comment commerc commerci commiss commit communiti compet competit complet complex compliant complic comprehens concentr concept conceptu concern conclus condemn condit conduct confid conflict consequ consid consider consist constitut construct consult contin continu contract contribut control convent cooper core corpor correct corrupt cost could council counter counter-coup counter-narcot countercoup counterterror countri coup coupl court cover crash crc creat creation credenti credit crimin crisi critic crucial currenc current curriculum damag day de de-regul dead deal dealt dear debt decad decemb decid decis decision-mak decreas dedic deep defam default defens deleg delhi deliv demand democraci democrat demonstr deni depend deploy depolitic deriv derog design desir desper despit destin destroy detail deterior devalu devast develop deviat devolut devolv dhume dialogu didn differ difficult digniti dimens diplomat direct director disarray disast discontent discriminta discuss disharmoni disillusion disinform dismiss dispens disput dissolv distinct distort distribut district distrust disturb divert divid domest domin done dr drama dri drop drop-out drought dub due durabl dynam e earlier earthquak easili east econom economi editor educ effect effici effort either elabor elect electr electron elimin emerg employ empow empower enact encompass encount encourag end enforc engag enhanc enjoy enlighten enough enrol enshrin ensur enter entrepreneur environ episod equal equiti erad escal escap especi establish estim etc europ european evalu eve even event eventu ever everi everybodi everyon evid except exchang execut exercis exert exist expansion expect expenditur expens explan export express extens extent extern extrem extremist face facil fact factor fail failur faisalabad fall far fastest façad fdi feder feel fell fellow felt femal field fight figur final financ financi find fire first fiscal five flight flourish flow flung flyer focus fold follow food forc forecast foreign foremost form formal format formul fought four framework franc free freedom freeli freest freez friday friend front fuel full function fund fundament gain gap gave gender general genuin geo geo-strateg germani get girl give given global go good govern government grant grass grass-root great greater greatest grew ground group grow growth guidelin gulf gunmen gwadar h half hand harm harsh hate head health heavi heavili hec height held help henc herculean hesit high higher hijack hinduism hindus histor histori hold home honest honor hope hour howev huge human humili hundr huntington hurt i.e idea identif identifi ideolog iftikhar ii iii illeg imbal imf immatur immedi immens impart implement implic import impos imposit improv incent includ incom income-wer inconsist incorpor increas inculc inde independ index india india-ar india-pakistan indian indic indirect individu indo indo-pak indulg industri industrialist ineffectu inept inequ inflat inflex inflow influenc inform initi innov insecur inspector instabl instead instig institut institution insuffici intact intellig intend intens inter inter-provinci inter-servic interact interest interlink intern intervent introduc introduct invas invest investig investor invit involv ipp iran iron irrevers irrevoc isi islam islamabad issu itali iv ix jail jaish jaish-e-moham jaswant jehangir job join judgment judici judiciari juli junctur june jus justic justifi juvenil karachi karamat kargil kashmir keep kept kesc key khakwani khokhrapar khwaja kill kind kingdom know known l.k label labor ladin lahor laid land lanka larg largest lashkar lashkar-e-taiba last late later launch law lawyer lax lead leader leadership leap led legal legitimaci less let level liber liberti lie life like limit line link list literaci literatur live loan loc local locat lodhi long long-term longstand look loot loss lost lot low lower loyal lt lt.gen lucrat luke macro macro-econom macro-level macroeconom made madrassah mai main maintain major make male male-domin maliha malik man manag mandat mani manner mark market martial mass mastermind maximum may mean measur mechan media medic meet member memoir men mention mercenari mere methodolog micro micro-level microeconom microphon middl milieu militari mill million mind minist minut misadventur mismanag mobil mode moder moham moment monetari money monger monitor month moral most mount movement much mukhtaran multipl munabao munabao-khokhrapar musharraf muslim mutual muzaffarabad nab name naqvi narcot nation nation-st nato natur navtec nawaz nchd nda near near-to-war necessari negat neglect negoti neighbourhood nervous never new news newsmen newspap next ngo nightmar nineti non non-accept non-nato non-resid norm northern novemb nrb nuclear number object observ occupi occur oct octob offenc offer offic offici officially-st old on-lin one one-of-a-kind one-to-on open oper opportun opposit order ordin ordnanc organ osama oust oversea overview overwhelm owe ownership p pact paid pak pak-u pakistan pakistan-bas pakistani paper par parallel parliament part parti particip particular partit partnership passag passeng past pattern pay payer payment peac peopl per perceiv percent perform perhap period person perspect pertain pervez peshawar phase pia pirzada place plan plane play pleas plebiscit pledg pm point polic polici policy-mak policymak polit politc politician poor popul popular pornographi port posit possess possibl post potenti poverti power pr practic prais precari predecessor preemin prefer premier preposter presenc present presid press pressur prevent previous price primari primarili prime privat privileg problem procedur proceed process produc profus program progress project prolifer promin promis promot prompt proof propag proper propos prosecut prosper protect prove provid provinc provinci psm public publish pull punjab purpos put qaeda qualiti question quick quit qureshi rail railway rampant rang rank rape rare rashid rate rather ratifi reach real realiz reason rebuild receiv recent reckless recogn recognit recommend reconstruct recov reduc reduct refer reflect reform refrain refus regard regim region regul regular regulatori rehman reign rein reinforc rejoic relat relationship relax relev religi remain remov report repres represent requir reschedul research reserv resid resign resolv resourc respect respond respons rest restor restraint restrict result retali retir retriev return revenu review revit reviv revolut rich right rise risen risk road role root rose round rout rule rumour run rupe rush sacrif sadanand safeguard said sale salient samuel sanction save say scanti scenario scenario-particular school score sea seat seato second secondari sectarian section sector secur seek seen select self senat senior sensit sentiment septemb serious sermon serv servic set seven seven-point sever shakoor sham shambl shame share sharif sharifuddin shatter shaukat shock shoot shore short show sick side sign signific silent similar simplifi sinc sindh singh sink situat six sixth skill slow social societ societi solidar solut solv soon sound sourc sources-which south soviet space span spare special specif speech speedi spent spirit spokesman sri srinag srinager-muzaffarabad stabil stabl staff stage stagnat stalem stanc stand standard start state stater statur status steel steer step still stood strateg strategi straw strength strengthen stress strident stridently-independ strive strong stronger structur struggl student studi sub sub-contin submit substanc substant substanti succeed success succumb suffer suggest summit superimposit supervis suppli support suprem surplus surpris survey surviv suspend suspicion sustain susten swear swearing-in swift syllabus system tackl tahir taiba tailor take take-ov taken takeov taliban talk tangibl tanvir task tax taxat taxpay teacher team technic tehsil telecom televis temporarili tension tenur term terror terrorist test theoret therefor thing think though thought thousand threat threaten three thus tie tight time today togeth told took topic tortur total totally-not touch toward track trade traffick train transfer transpar treat trespass tri trigger troop true truli turmoil turn two two-day type tyrant u u.n u.s unabl unaccept unaccount uncertainti uncondit understand understood unemploy unfavor unfold unfound uniform union unit univers unlik unmistak unprepar unstabl unten unusu uplift upon ur us use v vajpaye valu various verg versa vi vice victori view vii viii violat violenc violent visibl vision visit vital vivid vocat voic vulner waiv wake want wapda war warm warn washington wast water way weak wealth weapon weari welfar well went west whatev whole wide widen will wit withdraw within without women work workabl world world-particular worldwid wors would write wrote wtc www.nrb.gov.pk www.nrb.gov.pk/press/press_dec_12_2k1.htm www.presidentofpakistan.gov.pk www.presidentofpakistan.gov.pk/prforeignvisitdetail.aspx?nprforeignvisitid=392&nyear=2006&nmonth=11 year yearn yet yield young youth zahida ziauddin