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The Study Of American Government Essay

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Chapter 1: The Study of American Government

I. What is political power?
A. Two great questions about politics
1. Who governs: the people who govern affect us
2. To which ends: in which ways government affects our lives 3. And then how the government makes decisions on a variety of issues B. Power
1. Definition: the ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions 2. Text's concern: power as it is used to affect who will hold government office and how government will behave 3. Authority: the right to use power; not all who exercise political power have it 4. Legitimacy: what makes a law or constitution a source of right 5. Struggles over what makes authority legitimate

6. Necessity to be in some sense democratic in the United States today II. What is democracy?
A. Aristotelian "rule of the many" (participatory democracy) 1. Fifth-century B.C. Greek city-state
2. New England town meeting
3. Community control in self-governing neighborhood
4. Citizen participation in formulating programs
B. Acquisition of power by leaders via competitive elections (representative democracy) 1. Sometimes disapprovingly referred to as the elitist theory 2. Justifications of representative democracy

a. Direct democracy is impractical.
b. The people make unwise decisions based on fleeting emotions. III. Direct versus representative democracy
A. Text uses the term democracy to refer to representative democracy. 1. The Constitution does not contain the word democracy but the phrase "republican form of government." 2. Representative democracy requires leadership competition if the system is to work. a. Individuals and parties must be able to run for office.

b. Communication must be free.
c. Voters perceive that a meaningful choice exists.
3. Many elective national offices
4. Most money for elections comes from special interests
B. Virtues of direct democracy should be reclaimed through
1. Community control
2. Citizen participation
C. Framers: "will of people" not synonymous with the "common interest" or the "public good" 1. They strongly favored representative over direct democracy. 2. Direct democracy minimized chances of abuse of power by tyrannical popular majority or self-serving office holders. IV. How is power distributed in a democracy?

A. Majoritarian politics
1. Leaders constrained to follow wishes of the people very closely 2. Applies when issues are simple, clear, and feasible
B. Elitism
1. Rule by identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of political power 2. Four theories of Elite Influence
a. Marxism: government merely a reflection of underlying economic forces b. C. Wright Mills: power elite composed of corporate leaders, generals, and politicians c. Max Weber: bureaucracies based on expertise, specialized competence d. Pluralist view: no single elite has a monopoly on power; hence must bargain and compromise C. Cynical view that politics is self-seeking

1. Good policies may result from bad motives
2. Self-interest is an incomplete guide to actions (Alexis de Tocqueville on America) a. September 11 and self interest
b. AFL-CIO and civil rights
3. Some act against long odds and without the certainty of benefit V. Political change
A. Necessary to refer frequently to history because no single theory is adequate 1. Government today influenced by yesterday
2. Government today still evolving and responds to changing beliefs B. Politics about the public interest, not just who gets what VI. Finding out who governs
A. We often give partial or contingent answers.
B. Preferences vary, and so does politics.
C. Politics cannot be equated with laws on the books.
D. Sweeping claims are to be avoided.
E. Judgments about institutions and interests should be tempered by how they behave on different issues. F. The policy process can be an excellent barometer of change in who governs. Chapter 2: The Constitution

I. The problem of liberty
A. The colonial mind
1. Belief that because British politicians were corrupt, the English constitution was inadequate 2. Belief in higher law of natural rights
a. Life
b. Liberty
c. Property (Jefferson notwithstanding)
3. A war of ideology, not economics
4. Specific complaints against George III for violating unalienable rights B. The "real" revolution
1. The "real" revolution was the radical change in belief about what made authority legitimate and liberties secure. 2. Government by consent, not by prerogative
3. Direct grant of power: written constitution
4. Human liberty before government
5. Legislature superior to executive branch
C. Weaknesses of the confederation
1. Could not levy taxes or regulate commerce
2. Sovereignty, independence retained by states
3. One vote in Congress for each state
4. Nine of thirteen votes in Congress required for any measure 5. Delegates picked, paid for by legislatures
6. Little money coined by Congress
7. Army small; dependent on state militias
8. Territorial disputes between states
9. No national judicial system
10. All thirteen states' consent necessary for any amendments II. The Constitutional Convention
A. The lessons of experience
1. State constitutions
a. Pennsylvania: too strong, too democratic
b. Massachusetts: too weak, less democratic
2. Shays's Rebellion led to the fear the states were about to collapse. B. The Framers
1. Who came: men of practical affairs
2. Who did not come
3. Intent to write an entirely new constitution
4. Lockean influence
5. Doubts that popular consent could guarantee liberty
6. Results: "a delicate problem"; need strong government for order but one that would not threaten liberty a. Democracy of that day not the solution
b. Aristocracy not a solution either
c. Government with constitutional limits no guarantee against tyranny III. The challenge
A. The Virginia Plan
1. Design for a true national government
2. Two houses in legislature
3. Executive chosen by legislature
4. Council of revision with veto power
5. Two key features of the plan
a. National legislature with supreme powers
b. One house elected directly by the people
B. The New Jersey Plan
1. Sought to amend rather than replace the Articles
2. Proposed one vote per state
3. Protected small states' interests
C. The compromise
1. House of Representatives based on population
2. Senate of two members per state
3. Reconciled interests of big and small states
4. Committee of Detail
IV. The Constitution and democracy
A. Founders did not intend to create pure democracy
1. Physical impossibility in a vast country
2. Mistrust of popular passions
3. Intent instead to create a republic with a system of representation B. Popular rule only one element of the new government
1. State legislators to elect senators
2. Electors to choose president
3. Two kinds of majorities: voters and states
4. Judicial review another limitation
5. Amendment process
C. Key principles
1. Separation of powers
2. Federalism
D. Government and human nature
1. Aristotelian view: government should improve human nature by cultivating virtue 2. Madisonian view: cultivation of virtue would require a government too strong, too dangerous; self-interest should be freely pursued 3. Federalism enables one level of government to act as a check on the other E. The Constitution and liberty

F. Whether constitutional government was to respect personal liberties is a difficult question; ratification by conventions in at least nine states a democratic feature but a technically illegal one G. The Antifederalist view

1. Liberty could be secure only in small republics.
a. In big republics national government would be distant from people. b. Strong national government would use its powers to annihilate state functions. 2. There should be many more restrictions on government.

3. Madison's response: personal liberty safest in large ("extended") republics a. Coalitions likely more moderate there
b. Government should be somewhat distant to be insulated from passions 4. Reasons for the absence of a bill of rights
a. Several guarantees in Constitution
1. Habeas corpus
2. No bill of attainder
3. No ex post facto law
4. Trial by jury
5. Privileges and immunities
6. No religious tests
7. Obligation of contracts
b. Most states had bills of rights.
c. Intent to limit federal government to specific powers
H. Need for a bill of rights
1. Ratification impossible without one
2. Promise by key leaders to obtain one
3. Bitter ratification narrowly successful
V. The Constitution and slavery
A. Slavery virtually unmentioned
B. Apparent hypocrisy of Declaration signers
C. Necessity of compromise: otherwise no ratification
1. Sixty percent of slaves counted for representation.
2. No slavery legislation possible before 1808
3. Escaped slaves to be returned to masters
D. Legacy: Civil War, continuing problems
VI. The motives of the Framers
A. Acted out of a mixture of motives; economic interests played modest role B. Economic interests of framers varied widely
1. Economic interests of Framers varied widely
2. Beard: those who owned governmental debt supported Constitution 3. However, no clear division along class lines found
4. Recent research: state considerations outweighed personal considerations; exception: slaveholders C. Economic interests and ratification
1. Played larger role in state ratifying conventions
2. In favor: merchants, urbanites, owners of western land, holders of government IOUs, non-slave owners 3. Opposed: farmers, people who held no IOUs, slaveowners
4. But remarkably democratic process because most could vote for delegates 5. Federalists versus Antifederalists on ideas of liberty
D. The Constitution and equality
1. Critics: government today is too weak
a. Bows to special interests
b. Fosters economic inequality
c. Liberty and equality are therefore in conflict
2. Framers more concerned with political inequality; weak government reduces political privilege VII. Constitutional reform--modern views
A. Reducing the separation of powers to enhance national leadership 1. Urgent problems remain unresolved
2. President should be more powerful, accountable, to produce better policies 3. Government agencies exposed to undue interference
4. Proposals
a. Choose cabinet members from Congress
b. Allow president to dissolve Congress
c. Empower Congress to require special presidential election d. Require presidential/congressional terms
e. Establish single six-year term for president
f. Lengthen terms in House to four years
5. Contrary arguments: results uncertain, worse
B. Making the system less democratic
1. Government does too much, not too little
2. Attention to individual wants over general preferences
3. Proposals
a. Limit amount of taxes collectible
b. Require a balanced budget
c. Grant president a true line-item veto
d. Narrow authority of federal courts
4. Contrary arguments: unworkable or open to evasion
C. Who is right?
1. Decide nothing now
2. Crucial questions
a. How well has it worked in history?
b. How well has it worked in comparison with other constitutions? Chapter 3: Federalism

I. Governmental structure
A. Federalism: good or bad?
1. Definition: political system with local governmental units, in addition to national one, that can make final decisions 2. Examples of federal governments: Canada, India, and Germany 3. Examples of unitary governments: France, Great Britain, and Italy 4. Special protection of subnational governments in federal system is the result of: a. Constitution of country

b. Habits, preferences, and dispositions of citizens
c. Distribution of political power in society
5. National government largely does not govern individuals directly but gets states to do so in keeping with national policy 6. Negative views: block progress and protect powerful local interests a. Laski: states "poisonous and parasitic"

b. Riker: perpetuation of racism
7. Positive view: Elazar: strength, flexibility, and liberty 8. Federalism makes good and bad effects possible
a. Different political groups with different political purposes come to power in different places b. Federalist No. 10: small political units dominated by single political faction B. Increased political activity

1. Most obvious effect of federalism: facilitates mobilization of political activity 2. Federalism lowers the cost of political organization at the local level. II. The Founding
A. A bold, new plan to protect personal liberty
1. Founders believed that neither national nor state government would have authority over the other because power derives from the people, who shift their support. 2. New plan had no historical precedent.

3. Tenth Amendment was added as an afterthought, to define the power of states B. Elastic language in Article I: necessary and proper
1. Precise definitions of powers politically impossible because of competing interests, such as commerce 2. Hence vague language--"necessary and proper"
3. Hamilton's view: national supremacy because Constitution supreme law 4. Jefferson's view: states' rights with people ultimate sovereign III. The debate on the meaning of federalism
A. The Supreme Court speaks
1. Hamiltonian position espoused by Marshall
2. McCulloch v.Maryland settled two questions.
a. Could Congress charter a national bank? (yes, because "necessary and proper") b. Could states tax such a bank? (no, because national powers supreme) 3. Later battles
a. Federal government cannot tax state bank
b. Nullification doctrine led to Civil War: states void federal laws they deem in conflict with Constitution B. Dual federalism
1. Both national and state governments supreme in their own spheres 2. Hence interstate versus intrastate commerce
a. Early product-based distinction difficult
b. "Original package" also unsatisfactory
C. State sovereignty
1. Mistake today to think that doctrine of dual federalism is entirely dead 2. Supreme Court limited congressional use of commerce clause, thus protecting state sovereignty under Tenth Amendment 3. Supreme Court has given new life to Eleventh Amendment

4. Not all recent Supreme Court decisions support greater state sovereignty. 5. New debate resurrects notion of state police powers
6. Many state constitutions open door to direct democracy through initiative, referendum, and recall. 7. Existence of states guaranteed while local governments exist at pleasure of states IV. Federal-state relations

A. Grants-in-aid
1. Grants show how political realities modify legal authority. 2. Began before the Constitution with "land grant colleges," various cash grants to states 3. Dramatically increased in scope in the twentieth century 4. Were attractive for various reasons

a. Federal budget surpluses (nineteenth century)
b. Federal income tax became a flexible tool
c. Federal control of money supply meant national government could print more money d. "Free" money for state officials
5. Required broad congressional coalitions
B. Meeting national needs: 1960s shift in grants-in-aid
1. From what states demanded
2. To what federal officials found important as national needs C. The intergovernmental lobby
1. Hundreds of state, local officials lobby in Washington
2. Purpose: to get more federal money with fewer strings
D. Categorical grants versus revenue sharing
1. Categorical grants for specific purposes; often require local matching funds 2. Block grants devoted to general purposes with few restrictions 3. Revenue sharing requires no matching funds and provides freedom in how to spend. a. Distributed by statistical formula

b. Ended in 1986
4. Neither block grants nor revenue sharing achieved the goal of giving states more freedom in spending 5. Block grants grow more slowly than categorical grants.
a. Desire for federal control and distrust of state government b. No single interest group has a vital stake in multipurpose block grants, revenue sharing c. Categorical grants are matters of life or death for various agencies. E. E. Rivalry among the states

1. Increased competition a result of increased dependency
2. Snowbelt (Frostbelt) versus Sunbelt states
a. Difficulty telling where funds spent
b. Difficulty connecting funds to growth rates
c. Focus on formulas and their impact
3. Census takes on monumental importance
V. Federal aid and federal control
A. Introduction
1. Fear of "Washington control" and jeopardy of Tenth Amendment 2. Failed attempts at reversal in trends (block grants and revenue sharing) 3. Traditional and newer forms of federal controls on state governmental actions a. Conditions of aid tell a state government what it must do to obtain grant money b. Mandates tell state governments what to do, in some instances even when they do not receive grant money B. B. Mandates

1. Most concern civil rights and environmental protection
2. Administrative and financial problems often result
3. Growth in mandates, 1981 to 1991
4. Features of mandates
a. Regulatory statutes and amendments of previous legislation b. New areas of federal involvement
c. Considerable variation in clarity, administration, and costs 5. 1Additional costs imposed on the states through:
a. Federal tax and regulatory schemes
b. Federal laws exposing states to financial liability
6. 6. Federal courts have fueled the growth of mandates
a. Interpretations of the Tenth Amendment have eased flow of mandates b. Court orders and prisons, school desegregation, busing, hiring practices, police brutality C. Conditions of aid
1. Received by states voluntarily, in theory
a. Financial dependence blurs the theory
b. b. Civil rights generally the focus of most important conditions in the 1960's, a proliferation has continued since the 1970's c. c. Conditions range from specific to general
2. 2. Divergent views of states and federal government on costs, benefits 3. 3. Reagan's attempt to consolidate categorical grants; Congress's cooperation in name only 4. 4. States respond by experimenting with new ways of delivering services (e.g., child care, welfare, education) VI. A devolution revolution?

A. Renewed effort to shift important functions to states by Republican-controlled Congress in 1994 1. Key issue: welfare (i.e., the AFDC program)
2. Clinton vetoes two bills, then signed the third, to give management to states B. These and other turn-back efforts were referred to as devolution. 1. Old idea, but led by Congress
2. Clinton agreed with need to scale back size and activities of federal government. C. Block grants for entitlements
1. Most block grants are for operating and capital purposes (contra entitlement programs). 2. 2. Republican efforts to make AFDC and Medicaid into block grant programs 3. 3. Partial success and possible effects

a. AFDC and a number of related programs are now block grants b. Possible triggering of second-order devolution
c. Possible triggering of third-order devolution
d. Dramatic decrease in welfare rolls increase in unspent dollars e. Surpluses and Medicaid costs, shortfalls in state revenues and funding surges D. What's driving devolution?
1. Beliefs of devolution proponents
2. Realities of budget deficit
3. Citizen views
E. Congress and federalism: nation far from wholly centralized 1. Members of Congress still local representatives
2. Members of Congress represent different constituencies from the same localities. 3. Link to local political groups eroded
4. Differences of opinion over which level of government works best Chapter 4: American Political Culture

I. Introduction
A. The American model of government both here and abroad
B. Tocqueville on American democracy
1. Abundant and fertile soil for democracy to grow
2. No feudal aristocracy; minimal taxes; few legal restraints 3. Westward movement; vast territory provided opportunities 4. Nation of small, independent farmers
5. "Moral and intellectual characteristics," today called political culture II. Political Culture
A. Defined as a distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out (e.g. stronger American belief in political than in economic equality) B. Elements of the American political system

1. Liberty
2. Democracy
3. Equality
4. Civic duty
C. Some questions about the U.S. political culture
1. How do we know people share these beliefs?
Before polls, beliefs inferred from books, speeches, and so on 2. How do we explain behavior inconsistent with beliefs?
Beliefs still important, source of change
3. Why so much political conflict in U.S. history?
Conflict occurs even with beliefs in common
4. Most consistent evidence of political culture
Use of terms Americanism, un-American
D. The economic system
1. Americans support free enterprise but see limits on marketplace freedom 2. Americans prefer equality of opportunity to equality of result; individualist view 3. Americans have a shared commitment to economic individualism/self-reliance (see 1924 and 1977 polls) III. Comparing citizens of the United States with those of other nations A. Political system

1. Swedes: more deferential than participatory
a. Defer to government experts and specialists
b. Rarely challenge governmental decisions
c. Believe in what is best more than what people want
d. Value equality over liberty
e. Value harmony and observe obligations
2. Japanese
a. Value good relations with colleagues
b. Emphasize group decisions and social harmony
c. Respect authority
3. Americans
a. Tend to assert rights
b. Emphasize individualism, competition, equality, following rules, treating others fairly (compare with the Japanese) 4. Cultural differences affect political and economic systems 5. Danger of overgeneralizing: many diverse groups within a culture 6. Almond and Verba: U.S. and British citizens in cross-national study a. Stronger sense of civic duty, civic competence

b. Institutional confidence
c. Sense of patriotism
B. Economic system
1. Swedes (contrasted with Americans): Verba and Orren
a. Equal pay and top limit on incomes
b. Less income inequality
2. Cultural differences make a difference in politics: private ownership in United States versus public ownership in European countries C. The Civic Role of Religion
1. Americans are highly religious compared with Europeans
2. Recent trends in religiosity
3. Putnam's "bowling alone" thesis
D. Religion and Politics
1. Religious movements transformed American politics and fueled the break with England. 2. Both liberals and conservatives use the pulpit to promote political change. 3. Bush, Gore and public support for faith based approaches to social ills IV. The sources of political culture

A. Historical roots
1. Revolution essentially over liberty; preoccupied with asserting rights 2. Adversarial culture the result of distrust of authority and a belief that human nature is depraved 3. Federalist-Jeffersonian transition in 1800 legitimated the role of the opposition party; liberty and political change can coexist B. Legal-sociological factors

1. Widespread participation permitted by Constitution
2. Absence of an established national religion
a. Religious diversity a source of cleavage
b. Absence of established religion has facilitated the absence of political orthodoxy c. Puritan heritage (dominant one) stress on personal achievement 1. Hard work
2. Save money
3. Obey secular law
4. Do good
5. Embrace "Protestant ethic"
d. Miniature political systems produced by churches' congregational organization 3. Family instills the ways we think about world and politics a. Great freedom of children
b. Equality among family members
c. Rights accorded each person
d. Varied interests considered
4. Class consciousness absent
a. Most people consider themselves middle class
b. Message of Horatio Alger stories is still popular
C. The culture war
1. Two cultural classes in America battle over values
2. Culture war differs from political disputes in three ways: a. Money is not at stake
b. Compromises are almost impossible
c. Conflict is more profound
3. Culture conflict animated by deep differences in people's beliefs about private and public morality 4. Culture war about what kind of country we ought to live in 5. Two camps:
a. Orthodox: morality, with rules from God, more important than self-expression b. Progressive: personal freedom, with rules based on circumstances, more important than tradition 6. Orthodox associated with fundamentalist Protestants and progressives with mainline Protestants and those with no strong religious beliefs 7. Culture war occurring within religious denominations

8. Current culture war has special importance historically because of two changes: a. More people consider themselves progressives than previously b. Rise of technology makes culture war easier to wage

V. Mistrust of government
A. What the polls say
1. Since the 1950s, a steady decline in percentage who say they trust the government in Washington 2. Increase in percentage who think public officials do not care about what we think 3. Important qualifications and considerations:

a. Levels of trust rose briefly during the Reagan administration b. Distrust of officials is not the same as distrust for our system of government c. Americans remain more supportive of the country and its institutions than most Europeans B. Possible causes of apparent decline in confidence

1. Vietnam
2. Watergate and Nixon's resignation
3. Clinton's sex scandals and impeachment
4. Levels of support may have been abnormally high in the 1950s a. Aftermath of victory in World War II and possession of Atomic bomb b. From Depression to currency that dominated international trade c. Low expectations of Washington and little reason to be upset / disappointed 5. 1960's and 1970's may have dramatically increased expectations of government 6. Decline in patriotism (temporarily affected by the attacks of September 11) C. Necessary to view in context

1. Decline in confidence not spread to all institutions
2. Decline in confidence also varies from group to group
3. American's loss of support for leaders and particular policies does not mean loss of confidence in the political system or each other VI. Political efficacy
A. Definition: citizen's capacity to understand and influence political events B. Parts
1. Internal efficacy
a. Ability to understand and influence events
b. About the same as in 1950s
2. External efficacy
a. Belief that system will respond to citizens
b. Not shaped by particular events
c. Declined steadily through the 1960s and 1970s
C. Comparison: still much higher than Europeans'
D. Conclusion
1. Some say Americans are more "alienated" from politics
2. But current research has not easily established a relationship between trust in government and confidence in leaders and vote turnout 3. Decline in trust and confidence may mean support for non-incumbents and third party candidates VII. Political tolerance

A. Crucial to democratic politics
1. Citizens must be reasonably tolerant
2. But not necessarily perfectly tolerant
B. Levels of American political tolerance
1. Most Americans assent in abstract
2. But would deny rights in concrete cases
a. Liberals intolerant of extreme right
b. Conservatives intolerant of extreme left
3. Most are willing to allow expression to most
4. Americans have become more tolerant in recent decades
C. Question: How do very unpopular groups survive?
1. Most people do not act on beliefs
2. Usually no consensus on whom to persecute
3. Courts are sufficiently insulated from public opinion to enforce protection D. Conclusions
1. Political liberty cannot be taken for granted
2. No group should pretend it is always tolerant
a. Conservatives once targeted professors
b. Later, professors targeted conservatives
Chapter 5: Public Opinion

I. Introduction
A. Lincoln and the Gettysburg address "of the people, by the people, for the people." 1. Yet the federal government's budget is not balanced
2. Yet the people have opposed busing
3. Yet the ERA was not ratified
4. Yet most Americans opposed Clinton's impeachment
5. Yet most Americans favor term limits for Congress
B. Why government policy and public opinion may appear to be at odds 1. Government not intended to do "what the people want"
a. Framers of Constitution aimed for substantive goals
b. Popular rule was only one of several means toward these goals. c. Large nations feature many "publics" with many "opinions." 1. Framers hoped no single opinion would dominate
2. Reasonable policies can command support of many factions
2. Limits on effectiveness of opinion polling; difficult to know public opinion 3. Government may give more weight to political elites who may think differently II. What is Public Opinion?
A. Influences and limitations
1. Public ignorance: Monetary Control Bill ruse, poor name recognition of leaders 2. Importance of wording of questions, affects answers
3. Questions may focus one side of an issue at the expense of another (benefits / costs) 4. Instability of public opinion
5. Public has more important things to think about; need clear-cut political choices 6. Specific attitudes less important than political culture
III. The origins of political attitudes
A. The role of the family
1. Child absorbs party identification of family but becomes more independent with age 2. Much continuity between generations
3. Declining ability to pass on identification
4. Younger voters exhibit less partisanship; more likely to be independent 5. Meaning of partisanship unclear in most families; less influence on policy preferences 6. Few families pass on clear ideologies

B. Religion
1. Religious traditions affect families
a. Catholic families somewhat more liberal
b. Protestant families more conservative
c. Jewish families decidedly more liberal
2. Two theories on differences
a. Social status of religious group
b. Content of religion's tradition
C. The gender gap
1. A "problem" that has existed for a long time for both parties a. Men and women both identified with the Democratic Party at about the same levels in the 1950s b. By the 1990's men identified more with the Republican party while women continued to support the Democrats at earlier levels 2. Possible explanations for the "gap"

a. Attitudes about size of government, gun control, spending programs for the poor, and gay rights b. The conservative policy positions of men are increasingly matched by their party loyalty c. Presence of Democratic female candidates may also have an impact D. Schooling and information

1. College education has liberalizing effect; longer in college, more liberal 2. Effect extends beyond end of college
3. Cause of this liberalization?
a. Personal traits: temperament, family, intelligence
b. Exposure to information on politics
c. Liberalism of professors
4. Effect growing as more go to college
5. Increasing conservatism since 1960s?
a. Yes (legalizing marijuana)
b. No (school busing)
IV. Cleavages in public opinion
A. Social class: less important in United States than in Europe 1. More important in 1950s on unemployment, education, housing programs 2. Less important in 1960s on poverty, health insurance, Vietnam, jobs 3. Why the change?

a. Education: occupation depends more on schooling
b. Noneconomic issues now define liberal and conservative
B. Race and ethnicity
1. Social class becoming less clear-cut source of political cleavage 2. Impact of race and ethnicity is less clear
a. Some clear difference in opinion (party identification, O.J. Simpson, criminal justice system, affirmative action) b. Some similarities (quotas, getting tough on crime, abortion, etc.) c. Evidence that the gap in opinions is narrowing

d. Further complication: gaps between the opinions of younger and older blacks 3. Big opinion gap between black leaders and black people generally a. Still differences of opinions between blacks and whites on social issues; opinions similar on others b. Evidence that black-white differences are narrowing

4. Few studies of the opinions of over 30 million Latinos
a. California study of Latinos and Asian Americans
b. Latinos identified themselves as Democrats / Asian Americans identified themselves as Republicans c. Latinos were somewhat more liberal than Anglo whites and Asian Americans, but less liberal than blacks d. Diversity within ethnic groups and limitations of such studies C. Region

1. Southerners more conservative than northerners on military and civil rights issues but difference fading overall 2. Southern lifestyle different
3. Lessening attachment to Democratic party
V. Political ideology
A. Consistent attitudes
1. Ideology: patterned set of political beliefs about who ought to rule, their principles and policies 2. Most citizens display little ideology; moderates dominate 3. Yet most citizens may have strong political predispositions 4. "Consistency" criterion somewhat arbitrary

5. Some believe ideology increased in 1960s
6. Others argue that poll questions were merely worded differently in 1960s B. What do liberalism and conservatism mean?
1. Liberal and conservative labels have complex history
a. Europe during French Revolution: conservative = church, state authority b. Roosevelt and New Deal: activism = liberalism
c. Conservative reaction to activism (Goldwater): free market, states' rights, economic choice d. Today's imprecise and changing meanings
C. Various categories
1. Three useful categories emerge from studies
a. Economic policy: liberals favor jobs for all, subsidized medical care and education, taxation of rich b. Civil rights: liberals prefer desegregation, equal opportunity, etc. c. Public and political conduct: liberals tolerant of demonstrations, favor legalization of marijuana, and so on D. Analyzing consistency: people can mix categories

1. Pure liberals: liberal on both economic and personal conduct issues 2. Pure conservatives: conservative on both economic and personal conduct issues 3. Libertarians: conservative on economic issues, liberal on personal conduct issues 4. Populists: liberal on economic issues, conservative on personal conduct issues E. Political elites

1. Definition: those who have a disproportionate amount of some valued resource 2. Elites, or activists, display greater ideological consistency a. More information than most people
b. Peers reinforce consistency and greater difference of opinion than one finds among average voters F. Is there a "new class"?
1. Definition: those who are advantaged by the power, resources, and growth of government (not business) 2. Two explanations of well-off individuals who are liberals a. Their direct benefits fro...

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administ administr admir admiss admit adopt adult adulthood advanc advantag advers adversari advertis advic advis advisor advoc afdc affair affect affili affirm affluent afghanistan afl afl-cio aftermath afterthought age agenc agenda agenda-set agent agnew agre agreement agreement/disagreement agricultur ahead aid aim air airlin alexi alger alien align all-boy all-mal all-pow all-volunt alleg alli allianc alloc allow almond almost alon along alreadi also alter altern alway ama ambassador ambigu amend america american amicus among amount analysi analyz anarchi and/or anglo angola anim annihil annual anomali anoth answer anti anti-abort anti-jewish antiabort anticip antifederalist antinuclear antislaveri antitrust antiwar anyon anyth anyway apart apathi appar appeal appear appeas appli applic appoint appointe apprenticeship approach appropri approv arbitrari area arena argu argument aristocraci aristotelian arm armi around arous arrest arriv arthur articl artilleri ascend asian asid ask aspect assassin assembl assent assert assess asset assign assist associ assum assur athlet atlant atmospher atom attach attack attaind attempt attend attent attitud attitudin attorney attract attribut audienc australia author auto automat automobil autonomi avail averag avoid award away b b.c back background bad bakk balanc ballot ban bank banker bankruptci barbara barbari barber bargain baromet barrel barrier base basi battl bear beard becam becom began begin behalf behav behavior behind belief believ belong belt beneficiari benefit berlin bernstein best better better-off beyond bias bicamer bid big big-market big-spend big-ticket bigger biggest bill bind bipartisan birth bite bitter black black-whit blackston blame blanket blend blind block blockad blockag blueprint blur board bodi boland bold bolt bomb bomber bonus book boom borrow bosnia boss boston bottom bound bow bowl box boy branch brandenburg bread bread-and-butt break breed briberi brief briefli bring britain british broad broadcast broadcasters/telephone broaden broke broken brought brown brutal bryan buck buddi budget budgetari build built bull burden bureau bureaucraci bureaucrat buren burn buse bush busi butter buy bypass c cabinet cabl calcul california call came camera camp campaign can canada canal cancel cancer candid cannot cap capac capit captur card care career carri carter case casey cash cast casualti catch categor categori cathol caucus caus cautious cbo ceil celebr censorship census center central centuri cert certain certainti certiorari chadha chain chair chairmen challeng chamber chanc chang chaplain chapter charact characterist charg charl charlott charlotte-mecklenburg charter chase cheaper cheat check chief child children china choic choos chosen christian christma church church-goer cia cio circuit circul circular circumst circumv citi citizen citizen-ori city-st civic civil civilian claim clariti class classic classif claus clean clear clear-cut clearanc clearest cleavag client clinton close closer closest closur clothespin clotur club clue coalit coalition-build coastal coattail code coexist coin coincid cold collaps colleagu collect colleg coloni color color-blind combat combin come command commander-in-chief commentari commerc commerci commiss commit committe common communalist communic communist communiti compani companionship compar comparison compat compel compens compensatori compet competit complain complaint complet complex compli complianc complic compos composit comprehens compromis compulsori comput computer computer-simul concentr concept concern conclus concret concur concurr condemn condit conduct confeder confer confess confid confidenti confirm conflict conform confus congreg congress congress-presid congression congressional/presidential connect conscienti conscious consensus consent consequ conserv conservat consid consider consist consolid conspicu constitu constituency-ori constitut constrain constraint construct constructionist consult consum contact contain contempt contend content contenti contest context conting continu contra contract contractor contradict contrari contrast contribut control controversi convent convey convict convinc cooper coordin corp corpor corpus correct correl corrupt cosmopolitan cost could council counsel count counter countri court courtesi cover coverag covert craft creat creation crech credibl credit crew crime crimin crise crisi criterion critic crop cross cross-nat cross-purpos crs crucial cuban cue cultiv cultur cure curia curley currenc current curtail custom cut cynic cyprus d d.c daili dairi danc danger data date day de dead deadlin deadlock deal dealign dealmak dealt death debat debt decad decentr decid decis decisi decision-mak declar declin decreas dedic deduct deem deep deepli defam defeat defect defend defens defer deferenti defi deficit defin definit degrad degre delay deleg delib deliber delic deliv demand demis democraci democrat demonstr deni denomin depart depend deport deprav depress depriv deregul deriv describ descript desegreg desert deserv deserving/undeserving design desir despit destroy destruct detail detain determin deterr detriment detroit develop devic devis devolut devot didn die differ differenti difficult difficulti diffus dilemma diminish diplomat direct director dirti disabl disadvantag disagre disallow disappear disappoint disapprov disarma disast discharg disciplin discourag discret discretionari discrimin discriminatori discuss diseas disengag disinterest dislik disorgan dispar display disposit disproportion disput disrupt dissatisfact dissemin dissent dissid dissolv distanc distant distinct distort distribut district distrust diverg divers diversifi divid divis divulg doctor doctrin dollar domest domin donat done donna donor door dos doubl doubt downgrad downplay dozen draft dramat drawn dread dred drink drive driver drop drug dual dubious duck due duplic durat duti e e.g eager earli earlier earn earth eas easi easier easili east eastern econom economi economist editor editori edmund educ effect efficaci effici effort eight eighteen eighth eisenhow either el elast elazar elder elect elector electron element eleven eleventh elicit elig elimin elit elitist els elsewher embarrass embrac emerg emiss emot emphas emphasi employ employe empow empti enabl enact encompass encount encourag end endang endors endur energ enforc engag england english enhanc enlarg enough ensur entangl enter enterpris entir entitl entrepreneur entrepreneuri entri environ environment epa equal equat equival era erod escal escap escapad escobedo especi espionag espous essenti est establish estim etc ethic ethnic etho europ european evalu evas even event ever everi everybodi everyon everyth evid evil evolut evolv ex exacerb exam exampl exceed excel except excess exchang exclud exclus exclusionari execut exempt exercis exhaust exhibit exist expand expans expansion expect expedit expenditur expens experi expert expertis expir explain explan explicit expos exposur express extend extens extern extra extrem f face facil facilit fact faction facto factor factori fade fail failur fair faith fall fallen fals famili far farber fare farm farmer fast fastest fat fate fault favor favorit fax fbi fcc fdr fear feasibl featur februari fed feder federal-st federalist federalist-jeffersonian fee feel femal feminist fertil fetus feud feudal fewer fiction field fifteen fifteenth fifth fifth-centuri fifti fifty-fifti fight figur file filibust fill final financ financi find fine fire firm first fit five fix flag fleet flexibl flood floor flow focus foley folk follow foment food forc forcibl ford forecast foreign form forma formal format former formul formula forth forti forty-eight forty-f forum foster fought found foundat founder four fourteenth fraction fragment framer franc frank franklin fratern fraud free freedom freeli freez french frequent friedman friendship frontal frostbelt ftc fuel full fulli function fund fundament fundamentalist futur g gag gain galbraith galvan game gao gap garfield gari gase gatekeep gave gavel gavel-to-gavel gay gender gender-bas general generat genial genocid georg german germani gerrymand get get-out-the-vot gettysburg gitlow give given global go goal god goe goer gold gold-plat goldberg goldwat good gop gore gotten govern government government-sponsor governor grade gradual graduat gramm gramm-rudman grand grandfath grant grant-in-aid grants-in-aid grassroot graviti great greater greatest greek greenback greenhous grenada grew gridlock grievanc griffin ground group grow grower grown growth guarante guid guidelin gulf gun gut guy h habea habit haiti half hamilton hamiltonian hampshir hand handl hands-on happen harass harbor hard harder hardwar harm harmoni harper hart hartley hate hazard hazelwood head health hear heard hearst heavi heavili height height-weight held help heman henc henri herbert here-and-now heritag high high-spe high-tech higher highest hint hire hispan histor histori hitler hoc hold holder holm home homeland homogen homosexu honest honesti honeymoon hoover hope hopper horatio hospit hostag hostil hot hour hous howard howev huge human humphrey hundr hunt hurt hyde hypocrisi i.e ice idea identif identifi ideolog ignor ii iii ill illeg illinoi immedi immigr immin immun impact impeach impedi imperi implement impli import impos imposs impound impract imprecis improp improv improvis in in-and-out in-school inact inadequ incent incid incit includ incom incomplet inconclus inconsist increas incrimin incub incumb incur independ india indianapoli indic indict indign indirect individu individualism/self-reliance individualist induc indulg industri ineffici inequ inevit infer inferior inflat inflex influenc influx inform infus inher inhibit initi injustic innoc innov input insid insist instabl instanc instead instil institut institution instruct instrument insuffici insul insur insurrect integr intellectu intellig intend intens intensifi intent interc interdepend interest interest-group interfer intergovernment intern internationalist internet interpret interpretivist interservic interst interven intervent interview intimid intoler intrast introduc introduct invas invest investig invit invok involv ious iowa irang iranian iraq iron irrespect irrit isol isolation israel issu issue-ori itali item iv ix j jackson jacksonian jacobson jail japanes japanese-american jayce jcs jefferson jeffersonian jeopardi jersey jess jew jewish jim job john johnson join joint journal journalist jr judg judgeship judgment judici judiciari jure juri jurisdict justic justif justifi keep kefauv kennedi kenneth kept key keynesian kind king know know-noth korea korean kosovo kunz kuwait kyoto label labor labor-manag lack laffer laid laissez laissez-fair land landrum landrum-griffin landslid languag larg larger largest laski last late later latino latter launch launder law lawsuit lawyer lead leader leadership leagu leak learn least leav lebanon led left legaci legal legal-sociolog legisl legislatur legitim legitimaci lengthen lengthi less less-centr lessen lesson let letter level levi liabil liabl libel liber liberal/republicans libertarian liberti licens lie lieberman life lifestyl lifetim lift like limit lincoln line line-item link list literaci litig litmus littl live lloyd loan lobbi lobbyist local lock lockean loi long long-dist long-rang longer look loophol loos lopsid lose loser loss lot low lower lower-incom lower-rank loyal loyalti luck lump lump-sum lunch lust luther lwv lynch m1 machin machineri mad made madison madisonian magazin mail main mainlin maintain major majoritarian majoritorian make malapportion male malic malpractic man manag mandat mandatori maneuv mani manipul mapp march margin marijuana mark market marketplac markup marshal martin marxism mass massachusett master match materi matter max maxim maximum may mccain mccarthi mcclure mcculloch mcgovern mclaurin meal mean meaning meant meanwhil measur mechan mecklenburg media medic medicaid medicar meet melt member membership men menorah mental mention merchant mere merit messag met method mexico micromanag mid mid-1940s mid-1990s middl midterm militari military-industri militia milk mill million millionair milton mind miniatur minim minist minor minut miracl miranda mirror misconduct mislead misreport missil missouri mistak mistrust mix mixtur mobil model moder modern modest modifi monarchi monetar monetari money monitor monolingu monopoli monument mood moos moral moralist morn most most-ded mother motion motiv motor motor-vot move movement mr much mugwump multicent multipl multipurpos munich murray mushi music muski must mutual mx myron myth naacp nader nafta name name-request naral narrow narrowcast narrowli nation nationwid nativ natur navi nazi nea near necess necessari necessarili need needi negat neglig negoti negro neighbor neighborhood neither nervous network neutral never new newer news newspap next nie nine nineteenth nineti ninety-four nixon nlrb no-win nomin non non-christian non-citizen non-incumb non-slav noneconom nonentitl nonmemb nonmonetari nonpartisan nonpolit nonregistr nonsectarian nonviol nonvot norm north northern nose not notabl noth notic notifi notion notwithstand npr nra nsc nuclear nude nullif number numer o o.j obey object oblig obscen observ obstruct obtain obvious occas occup occupi occur occurr odd offend offens offer offic offici offset often oil ok old older omit one one-issu one-rac one-sid one-sixth one-third oner ongo open oper opinion opm oppon opportun oppos opposit option oral order ordin organ organiz orient origin orren orthodox orthodoxi ota other otherwis ought outburst outcom outer outlin outlook outnumb output outrag outsid outspend outweigh overal overcom overgener overhead overlap overpow overrid overrun overse oversight overstaf overturn overwhelm owe own owner ownership pac packag paid pamphlet panama paper paradigm parasit parent parliament parliamentari parochi part parti partial particip participatori particular partisan partisanship party-busi pass passag passion past patent patholog patriot patronag pattern pauper pauperi pay pay-as-you-go payment peac peacetim pearl peer penal pend pendleton pennsylvania pentagon peopl per perceiv percent percentag percept perfect perform period perk perman permiss permit perpetu perq persecut persist person personnel persuad persuas pesticid petit phase phenomenon philosoph phrase physic pick pictur piec pit place plain plaintiff plan plate play pleas pleasur pledg plessi plural pluralist pocket point poison poland polar polic policemen polici policy-mak policy-ori polit politician politick polk poll pollut poor popul popular populist pork pornographi port posit possess possibl post post-waterg postal postcard postgradu postwar potenti poverti power powerless practic prayer preced precis predatori predica predict predisposit predomin prefer preferenti pregnanc preoccupi prepar prerog prescript presenc present preserv presid presidenti presidential/congressional presidentially-draft press pressur prestigi presumpt pretend prevail prevent previous price primari primarili prime princip principl print prior prioriti prison privaci privat privileg pro pro-busi pro-choic pro-civil pro-lif probabl problem probus probusi procedur proceed process produc product product-bas profess profession professor profil profound program progress prohibit project prolifer prolong promin promis promot proof proper properti propon proport propos prosecut prospect prosper protect protest protocol protract prove provid provis proviso public public-interest publish pulpit punish pupil purchas pure puritan purpos purs pursu push put putnam puzzl pyramid qualif qualifi qualiti quarrel quasi quasi-independ question quick quid quit quo quota rabbi race racial racism radic radio railroad rain rais ralli ralph ran random rang rank rank-and-fil rape rapid rare rariti rate rather ratif ratifi ration rational reach react reaction reader readership readi reaffirm reagan reagan-cart reaganom real realign realiti realli reason reassert reassur reawaken rebellion recal receiv recent reckless reclaim recogn recognit recommend reconcil reconcili recruit red redesign redistribut redraw redrawn reduc reduct reelect reemerg refer referendum referr refin reflect reform refus regard region regist registr regul regular regulatori reimburs reinforc reinvent reject relat relationship relax releas reli relianc relief religi religion religios reloc reluct remain remark remedi remov renew renomin reorgan repair repel replac repli report repres represent republ republican republican-control republican-loy reput request requir research resembl resent reserv resid resign resist resolut resolv resort resourc respect respond respons restraint restrict result resurrect retain retent retir retrospect return reveal revenu revers review revis reviv revolut revolv reward rice rich rid ride ridg right right-of-repli riker riot rise risk riski rival rivalri rnc roadblock robertson rock rocket roe role roll roosevelt root rose rostker rotari round rout routin rudman rule run ruse russia sabotag saccharin safe safeguard safest safeti salari sale salvador santa satisfact saturday save say scaif scale scandal scarc scene schedul scheme schenck scholar school scienc scientif scientist scope score scorekeep scott scout scribner scrutini sdi sea search seat second second-ord secret secretari section sector secular secur sedit see seek seeker seem seen segment segreg segregationist seizur select self self-express self-govern self-incrimin self-indulg self-interest self-seek self-serv self-support sell senat senatori send senior sens sensat sent separ septemb sequenti sequest serbian serv servant servic ses session set setback settl settlement seven seventi sever sex sexism sexual shape share sharp sharpli shay shelv sheppard shift ship shock short short-term shorten shortfal show shroud side sign signatur signer signific silenc similar simpl simpson simul sinc sinclair singl single-issu sipuel sit sit-in situat six six-year sixteenth sixth sixti sixty-day size skeptic skew skoki slander slant slave slavehold slaveown slaveri slight slim slip slogan slow slower slowli small small-scal small-ticket smaller smith smoke snowbelt soap sobrieti social socialist societi sociolog soft soil sold sole solicitor solidari solut solv somalia someth sometim somewhat somewher sophomor sought sound sourc south southern southwest sovereign sovereignti soviet spain span speak speaker speci special specialist specif spectrum speech speed spend spent sphere spill spin split sponsor spot spread spur staff staffer stage stake stalwart stamp stand standard star stare start state state-administ state-support statement station stationari statist statur status statut statutori steadi steadili steel steer step stevenson still stock stop stori storm straightforward strain strateg strategi streamlin strength strengthen stress stretch strict strict-scrutini strike string strong stronger strongest struck structur struggl stuck student studi style subcommitte subject submit subnat subordin subsid subsidi substanc substant substanti subtl suburban succeed success suffer suffici suffrag sugar suit sum summari summer sunbelt superdeleg superfund superior supervis supervisor supplement suppli supply-sid support suppos suprem supremaci sure surg surplus survey surviv sustain sweatt swede sweep swept switch symbol sympath sympathet sympathi synonym system systemat tactic taft taft-hartley tailor take taken talk talmadg tangibl tank tap tape target tariff task tax tax-exempt taxat taxpay teach teacher teaser tech technic techniqu technolog telecommun telegraph telephon televis tell teller temper tempera temperatur tempor temporarili tempt tend tendenc tenth term territori terror terrorist test testimoni tet texa text textbook theme theodor theori therefor thesi thing think third third-ord thirteen thirti though threat threaten three three-fifth three-part throughout thus ticket tie tight tighten time timet titl tobacco tobacco-grow tocquevill today togeth toler tom tone tongu took tool top torn tortur total touch tough tougher toward town townsend toxic track trade tradit train trait transfer transform transit trap travel treason treasuri treat treati treatment tree tremend trend tri trial triangl trigger trim trimest trip troop tropic troubl truck true truli truman trust truth ts tuition tune tune-out turk turkey turn turn-back turnout turnov tv twelv twenti twentieth twenty-fifth twenty-four-hour twenty-second twenty-sixth twenty-two twenty-year-old twice two two-part two-parti two-third tyler type typic tyrann tyranni u.s uaw ultim un un-american unabl unaccept unalien unanim unawar unbias uncertain uncertainti unclear unconstitut undecid undefin undepend under underestim understand undu unemploy unenforc unequ uneth unexpect unfocus unifi uniform unilater unimport unintend union unionist uniqu unit unitari uniti univers unlaw unless unlik unlimit unment unnam unorgan unparallel unpopular unpredict unresolv unrestrict unsatisfactori unsold unspent unwis unwork upheld upper upper-class upper-level upper-middle-class upset urban urbanit urg urgent us usa use ussr usual util v v.maryland v.nixon v.sandford v.wade vagu valenc valu van vap vari variabl variat varieti various vast vep verba versa version versus veteran veto vi via viabil vice victori vietnam view viewer vigor vii viii violat violent virginia virtu virtual visibl visual vital voic void volatil volunt voluntari voluntarili vote voter vulner wade wage wage-pric wagner wait wall wallac want war warm warrant washington wast watchdog water waterg watersh wave way weak weaken weaker weal wealth weapon weather weber wed week weigh weight welfar well well-financ well-fund well-off went west western westward whatev wherea whether whig whip whistleblow white whole wholli whose wide widespread widest widow wilbur wilder will wilson win wine winner winner-reward winner-take-al wire wish withdraw within without withstood woman women won woodward word work worker world worldview worri wors worst worth worthi would wright writ write writer written wrong wwi x xi xii year yellow yes yesterday yet york young younger youth zone