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The Land Acquisition Act, 1894
THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT, 1894

Act 1 of 1894 Part 1: Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement-
(1) This Act may be called the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 . (2) It extends to the whole of India except (the state of Jammu and Kashmir). (3) It shall come into force on the first day of March 1894 . 2. [ Repeal and Saving] Rep. Partly by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1914 (10 of 1914 ), s. 3 and Sch. II, and partly by the Repealing act, 1938 (1 of 1938 ) s. 2 and Sch. 3. Definitions.- In this Act, unless there is something repugnant in the subject or context,- (a) the expression land includes benefits to arise out of land, and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth; [ (aa) the expression local authority includes a town planning authority (by whatever name called) set up under any law for the time being in force]; (b) the expression person interested includes all persons claiming an interest in compensation to be made on account of the acquisition of land under this Act; and a person shall be deemed to be interested in land if he is interested in an easement affecting the land; (c) the expression Collector means the Collector of a district, and includes a Deputy Commissioner and any officer specially appointed by the[ appropriate Government] to perform the functions of a Collector under this Act; [ (cc) the expression corporation owned or controlled by the State means any body corporate established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, and includes a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956 ), a society registered under the Societies Regulation Act, 1860 (21 of 1860 ), or under any corresponding law for the time being in force in a State, being a society established or administered by Government and a co- operative society within the meaning of any law relating to co- operative societies for the time being in force in any State, being a co- operative society in which not less than fifty- one per centum of the paid- up share capital is held by the Central Government, or by any State Government or Governments or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State Governments]. (d) the expression Court means a principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction unless, the[ appropriate Government] has appointed (as it is hereby empowered to do) a special judicial officer within any specified local limits to perform functions of the Court under this Act; [ (e) the expression Company means- (i) a company as defined in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956 ), other than a Government company referred to in clause (cc); (ii) a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860 ), or under any corresponding law for the time being in force in a State, other than a society referred to in clause (cc); (iii) a co- operative society within the meaning of any law relating to co- operative societies for the time being in force in any State, other than a co- operative society referred to in clause (cc);] [ (ee) the expression appropriate Government means, in relating to acquisition of land for the purposes of the Union, the Central Government, and, in relation to acquisition of land for any other purposes, the State Government;] [ (f) the expression public purpose includes- (i) the provision of village- sites, or the extension, planned development or improvement of existing village- sites; (ii) the provision of land for town or rural planning;

(iii) the provision of land for planned development of land from public funds in pursuance of any scheme or policy of Government and subsequent disposal thereof in whole or in part by lease, assignment or outright sale with the object of securing further development as planned; (iv) the provision of land for a corporation owned or controlled by the State; (v) the provision of land for residential purposes to the poor or landless or to persons residing in areas affected by natural calamities, or to persons displaced or affected by reason of the implementation of any scheme undertaken by Government, any local authority or a corporation owned or controlled by the State; (vi) the provision of land for carrying out any educational, housing, health or slum clearance scheme sponsored by Government or by any authority established by Government for carrying out any such scheme, or with the prior approval of the appropriate Government, by a local authority, or a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860 ), or under any corresponding law for the time being in force in a state, or a co- operative society within the meaning of any law relating to co- operative societies for the time being in force in any State; (vii) the provision of land for any other scheme of development sponsored by Government or with the prior approval of the appropriate Government, by a local authority; (viii) the provision of any premises or building for locating a public office, but does not include acquisition of land for companies;] (g) the following persons shall be deemed person entitled to act as and to the extent hereinafter provided (that is to say)- trustees for other persons beneficially interested shall be deemed the person entitled to act with reference to any such case, and that to the same extent as the person beneficially interested could have acted if free from disability. a married woman, in cases to which the English law is applicable, shall be deemed the persons, so entitled to act, and whether of full age or not, to the same extent as if she were unmarried and of full age; and the guardians of minors and the committees or managers of lunatics or idiots shall be deemed respectively the persons so entitled to act, to the same extent as the minors, lunatics or idiots themselves, if free from disability, could have acted: Provided that (i) no person shall be deemed entitled to act whose interest in the subject matter shall be shown to the satisfaction of the Collector or court to be adverse to the interest of the person interested for whom he would otherwise be entitled to act; (ii) in every such case the person interested may appear by a next friend or, in default of his appearance by a next friend, the Collector or Court, as the case may be, shall appoint a guardian for the case to act on his behalf in the conduct thereof; (iii) the provisions of[ Order XXXII of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908 ) shall, mutatis mutandis, apply in the case of persons interested appearing before a Collector or Court by a next friend, or by a guardian for the case, in proceedings under this Act; and (iv) no person entitled to act shall be competent to receive the compensation money payable to the person for whom he is entitled to act, unless he would have been competent to alienate the land and receive and give a good discharge for the purchase money on a voluntary sale. PART II Acquisition Preliminary investigation 4. Publication of preliminary notification and power of officers thereupon.- (1) Whenever it appears to the[ appropriate Government] the land in any locality[ is needed or] is likely to be needed for any public purpose[ or for a company], a notification to that effect shall be published in the Official Gazette[ and in two daily newspapers circulating in that locality of which at least one shall be in the regional language], and the Collector shall cause public notice of the substance of such notification to be given at convenient places in the said locality[ (the last of the dates of such publication and the giving of such public notice, being hereinafter referred to as the date of the publication of the notification)]. (2) Thereupon it shall be lawful for any officer, either generally or specially authorized by such Government in this behalf, and for his servants and workman,- to enter upon and survey and take levels of any land in such locality; to dig or bore into the sub- soil; to do all other acts necessary to ascertain whether the land is adapted for such purpose; to set out the boundaries of the land proposed to be taken and the intended line of the work (if any) proposed to be made thereon; to mark such levels, boundaries and line by placing marks and cutting trenches; and, where otherwise the survey cannot be completed and the levels taken and the boundaries and line marked, to cut down and clear away any part of any standing crop, fence or jungle; Provided that no person shall enter into any building or upon any enclosed court or garden attached to a dwelling house (unless with the consent of the occupier thereof) without previously giving such occupier at least seven days' notice in writing of his intention to do so. 5. Payment for damage.- The officer so authorized shall at the time of such entry pay or tender payment for all necessary damaged to be done as aforesaid, and, in case of dispute as to the sufficiency of the amount so paid or tendered, he shall at once refer the dispute to the decision of the Collector or other chief revenue officer of the district, and such decision shall be final. [ Objections 5A. Hearing of objections.-

(1) Any person interested in any land which has been notified under section 4, sub- section (1), as being needed or likely to be needed for a public purpose or for a Company may,[ within thirty days from the date of the publication of the notification], object to the acquisition of the land or of any land in the locality, as the case may be. (2) Every objection under sub- section (1) shall be made to the Collector in writing, and the Collector shall give the objector an opportunity of being heard[ in person or by any person authorized by him in this behalf] or by pleader and shall, after hearing all such objections and after making such further inquiry, if any, as he thinks necessary,[ either make a report in respect of the land which has been notified under section 4, sub- section (1), or make different reports in respect of different parcels of such land, to the appropriate Government, containing his recommendations on the objections, together with the record of the proceedings held by him, for the decision of that Government]. The decision of the[ appropriate Government] on the objections shall be final. (3) For the purpose of this section, a person shall be deemed to be interested in land who would be entitled to claim an interest in compensation if the land were acquired under this Act.] Declaration of intended acquisition 6. Declaration that land is required for a public purpose.- (1) Subject to the provision of Part VII of this Act,[ appropriate Government] is satisfied, after considering the report, if any, made under section 5A, sub- section (2)], that any particular land is needed for a public purpose, or for a Company, a declaration shall be made to that effect under the signature of a Secretary to such Government or of some officer duly authorized to certify its orders[ and different declarations may be made from time to time in respect of different parcels of any land covered by the same notification under section 4, sub- section (I) irrespective of whether one report or different reports has or have been made (wherever required) under section 5A, sub- section (2)]; [ Provided that no declaration in respect of any particular land covered by a notification under section 4, sub- section (1)- (i) published after the commencement of the Land Acquisition (Amendment and Validation) Ordinance, 1967 (1 of 1967 ), but before the commencement of the Land Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1984 (68 of 1984 ), shall be made after the expiry of three years from the date of the publication of the notification; or (ii) published after the commencement of the Land Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1984 (68 of 1984 ), shall be made after the expiry of one year from the date of the publication of the notification:] Provided further that] no such declaration shall be made unless the compensation to be awarded for such property is to be paid by a Company, or wholly or partly out of public revenues or some fund controlled or managed by a local authority. [ Explanation 1.- In computing any of the periods referred to in the first proviso, the period during which any action or proceeding to be taken in pursuance of the notification issued under section 4, sub- section (1), is stayed by an order of a Court shall be excluded. Explanation 2.- Where the compensation to be awarded for such property is to be paid out of the funds of a corporation owned or controlled by the State, such compensati...

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