Essays /

Decntralised Government Systems With Reference To Essay

Essay preview

This essay seeks to critically discuss the meaning of a decentralized education system and to highlight the benefits and challenges of such an education system with reference to Zambian education. This essay will first look at the meanings of the terms “Decentralization” and “a decentralized education system”. And thereafter highlight the benefits and challenges and relate them to the Zambian education system and finally conclude. “Decentralization is theprocess whereby decision making powers and functions are transferred from the more central structures of the government and its ministries to local level structures...Decentralization is related to the principal of subsidiary function (or subsidiarity), that is a higher level group should not do for a lower level group what the lower level group can do for itself and a group above the level of individuals should not do for the individuals what the individuals can do for themselves”.(Kelly, 1996; page 200). Fiszbein (2001) ed. also adds that decentralization is a matter of degree since all organizations are decentralized to some extent out of necessity. At one extreme a strongly decentralized organization is the one which even the lowest level employees or managers are empowered to make decisions, at the other extreme at a strongly decentralized organization the lower level managers or employees have little freedom to make decisions. Although all organizations fall somewhere between these two extremes, there is a pronounced trend towards more and more decentralization. A decentralized education system is an education system whose legal and financial powers have been granted to local units. The central authorities will only exercise direct supervisory control over such units which gives full control over planning, implementation of programmes and projects within the guidelines set by the central authorities. This type of educational system also transfers managerial responsibilities for certain defined educational functions to organizations that are outside the regular bureaucratic structure of the educational system that are directly controlled by the central authorities (i.e. the Ministry of Education) and the central authorities or government divesting itself of some responsibility for ownership, power and control over education and the transfer ofsome of these to voluntary organizations or private enterprises (Ministry of Education, 1996). A decentr...

Read more


/decentralised. /decentralized). 1954 1996 1999 200 2000 2001 2004 2007 abil act action ad add addit adequ adher administr adopt advantag al alec alreadi also although alway analysi and/or anoth answer appoint assumpt attempt author autonomi avoid b bank base becom behalf behaviour beneficiari benefit best better blend bookworld bring budget build burden bureaucraci bureaucrat busi c call calleddevolut capac carmodi carri case central certain challeng china claim closer cole common communic communiti conced conclud condit continu control coordin cost council creat critic date day dc decentr decentralis decis decntralis deconcentr defin degre demand depart descript detail determin develop difficult direct disadvantag disast discuss district divest donald dubious duti easi easier ed ed.decentralizing educ effect elect employ employe empow enabl encourag enorm enough ensur entail enterpris entrust error essay et evalu even everyday evolut exampl exercis expens experi extens extent extrem face fact faculti fall faster final financi first fiszbein flatter flexibl focus form formal free freedom full fulli function fund furthermor futur g gaug general gershberg give given glenco go gouldner govern grant greater group guidelin h.o.d havean head help henc high higher highlight howev i.e ian idea ideal ill ill-prepar imag implement implications.while import improv incent includ increas individu industri inform innov inspect inspector instanc instead interact interest involv inzambia j job judgement kelli key l lambarda larg latitud lead legal less let level like limit littl local long look lower lowest lusaka m made major make manag manageri matter may mean meet member mention milan minist ministri modern money moral most motiv much mullin nation necess need next number offic offset ofsom often one oper order organ organis origin otherwis outsid outweigh over-s ownership page parcel part particular pattern peopl perform period person physic place plan planner polici popular posit power practic prepar press pressur prevent princip printer privat problem programm project promot pronounc prove provid publish pupil put qualiti rate reaction realiti refer region regular relat reli reliev report requir reserv resourc respond respons result role rotolito rule run salari satisfact save say scale school seek seer select senior sens sensit sent set sever share short simultan sinc situat size societies.washington solv somewher space spent spread staff state step strategi strict strong structur subsidiar subsidiari supervisori suppos system take taken target task teach teacher tend term terrif theori theprocess thereaft therefor time took top toward train transfer transit trend tri true turn two type typic unavail undergo understand unexpect unit urgent use usual visit vital voluntari washington weapon wherebi whole whose winkler within without work work-to-rul workforc world would zambia zambian