Essays /

Not Sure Essay

Essay preview

An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style 6th Edition An Author-Date System based on American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Page 1

Open Rubric

Edition 2010 Produced by the CQUniversity Australia Rockhampton, Queensland. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C - Qld; 01315F - NSW; 01624D - Vic

DEVELOPED BY CQUniversity Australia

M a i n t a i n e d by

Communications Learning Centre staff Academic Learning Services

Division of Library and Academic Learning Services

Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia

Page 2

Table of Contents
Using this guide Why reference/cite? How to reference/cite In-text references Author prominent Information prominent What is plagiarism? Paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work Use of italics Use of quotation marks Quote within a quote Minimal capitalisation Quoting incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar from an original source Quotations of 40 or more words Quoting online material that has no page numbers Use of city, state, country location information Difference between a reference list and a bibliography How to reference an example not covered by the APA manual Journal articles and periodicals A journal article with a DOI Electronic journal article with no DOI Journal and periodical articles in print Using URL references Unpublished sources Appendices When to use numbers expressed in words 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10

GUIDELINES AND EXAMPLES
BOOKS JOURNALS

11
11 20

Page 3

UNIVERSITY MATERIALS GOVERNMENT & LEGISLATION SPECIALISED SOURCES UNPUBLISHED SOURCES OTHER ELECTRONIC SOURCES REFERENCES INDEX

23 27 29 34 35 38 40

Page 4

Using this guide
Disclaimer: This guide has been produced in good faith and is based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (the APA manual), 6th edition, published in 2010. While it will serve as a guide, and the principles of APA referencing style have been applied to some examples that traditionally do not appear in the hard copy APA manual, students with queries should consult the APA manual 6th ed. or their lecturers for clarification. The following points may be helpful to you when preparing citations or reference lists.

Why reference/cite?
References must be provided whenever you use someone else‘s opinions, theories, ideas, research, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, computers, other print or electronic sources and personal communications. A reference is required if you: quote (use someone else‘s exact words) copy (use figures, tables or structure) paraphrase (convert someone else‘s ideas into your own words) summarise (use a brief account of someone else‘s ideas).

How to reference/cite
When referencing/citing a paraphrase within the text of your assignment, the surname of the author followed by a comma and the year of publication are given wholly or partly in round brackets. If referencing a direct quote add a comma and page number after the year. If the author‘s name is in the text itself then you only need (year) or (year, p. ) if a direct quote. At the end of the assignment provide a reference list with all the items referred to/cited in the text put in full detail in alphabetical order. See example on page 33.

In-text references
There are two ways of referencing (citing): author prominent and information prominent.

Author prominent
This way gives prominence to the author by using the author‘s surname (family name) as part of your sentence with the date and the page number in parentheses (round brackets). Direct quote example Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) argues that ―gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice.‖ Paraphrase example Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) suggests that equal treatment of the genders in education should be the goal of every just society. Note: Include the page number when quoting the author‘s exact words as well as when paraphrasing information that is on a specific page of a resource.

Page 5

Information prominent
The other way of referencing (citing) gives prominence to the information, with all the required referencing details in parentheses at the end of the citation. Direct quote example It has been argued that ―gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice‖ (Unterhalter, 2007, p. 5). Paraphrase example Equal treatment of the genders in education should be the goal of every just society (Unterhalter, 2007, p. 5). Note: Include the page number when quoting the author‘s exact words as well as when paraphrasing information that is on a specific page of a resource.

What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is the presentation of work, ideas or data of others as one's own without appropriate acknowledgement. Read the CQUniversity Plagiarism Policy at http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_file.do?policyid=198 If you want to use material from one of your previous assessment tasks in a current assessment task, you must ask your lecturer for permission to do so.

Paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work The manual states, ―When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text‖ (APA, 2010, p. 171, Section 6.04).

Use of italics
For the name of a journal, newspaper, magazine, book, film, etc., use italics. The exception is informally published materials. In blog posts, YouTube videos, message board posts, etc. nothing is in italics. (APA, pp. 104-106, Section 4.21)

Use of quotation marks
Double quotation marks are used around direct quotes of fewer than 40 words. (APA, 2010, p. 170, Section 6.03)

Page 6

Quote within a quote
When a quote appears within a quote use single quote marks. ―The first words of Melville‘s Moby Dick are ‗Call me Ishmael‘ and these words are full of significance‖ was the first statement in Smith‘s memorable speech (Johns, 1995, p. 43).

Minimal capitalisation
Capitalise only the first word of titles of books and articles. If there is a subtitle, capitalise the first word after the colon. For example, The hero within: Six archetypes we live by. This is minimal capitalisation. Capitalise the first word and all important words in the names of journals, newspapers and magazines. For example: Peterson, J., & Schmidt, A. (1999). Widening the horizons for secondary schools. Journal of Secondary Education, 3(8), 89–106.

Quoting incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar from an original source The manual states, ―Direct quotations must be accurate. . . . If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word sic, italicized and bracketed, immediately after the error in the quotation.‖ For example, ―… italicized [sic] and bracketed‖ (APA, 2010, p. 172, Section 6.06).

Quotations of 40 or more words
These should be formatted as a freestanding block of text as follows: omit quotation marks indent the block 1.25 cm from the left margin (the same indent used for a new paragraph) use double line spacing use the same font and size as the text give the source and page number in brackets after the final full-stop. (APA, 2010, p. 171, Section 6.03)

Quoting online material that has no page numbers
Normally, direct quotations of online material are cited with author, year, and page number in brackets but many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, if there are paragraph numbers, use the paragraph numbers in place of the page numbers, with the abbreviation para. For example, (Smith & Jones, 2009, para. 3). If there are no paragraph numbers but there are headings, cite the first three or four words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. You will need to count the paragraphs yourself, for example, (Education for Change, 2009, ―Our growth plan‖, para. 2). (APA, 2010, pp. 171-172, Section 6.05)

Page 7

Use of city, state, country location information
Provide city and state for US and Australian publications (e.g., Princeton, NJ; Rockhampton, Qld). Provide city, state and country for all other publications. (APA, 2010, pp. 186, Section 6.30)

Difference between a reference list and a bibliography
A reference list includes all the sources of information that have been cited (referenced) in-text in a piece of work and is located at the end of the piece of work and arranged in alphabetical order. A bibliography lists all specific details of all works consulted when preparing a piece of work whether or not the work has been cited in the document. This means that all the works referred to within the document as well as all works consulted but not referred to would appear in the bibliography in alphabetical order. Unless your assignment instructions specifically request a bibliography, a reference list is generally all that is required. If your assignment task specifies there is no need for in-text referencing but asks for a bibliography, the bibliography will list in alphabetical order the resources which were consulted but of course not used as a reference in the document.

Referencing a source not covered by the APA manual
This will happen rarely, but should it happen to you, this is what the manual has to say: “Because one purpose of listing references is to enable readers to retrieve and use the sources, each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing or retrieval data – all information necessary for unique identification and library search” (APA, 2010, p. 193, Section 7). You can also find additional examples on the APA web site: http://www.apastyle.org. See especially the tutorial on The Basics of APA Style.

Journal articles and periodicals A journal article with a DOI Many journal articles and other online documents are assigned a Digital Object Identifier, or DOI. A DOI is a unique string of letters and numbers that identifies a document. All DOIs begin with the number 10. They can often be found on the first page of a journal article, or in the database citation information. A DOI can be used in two ways to find an online version of a document. First, it can be entered at the CrossRef web site (http://www.crossref.org). Second, it can be appended to the following Web address: http://dx.doi.org/ Note: If you are searching for an article with a DOI, it is usually better to search for the journal by title in the CQUniversity Library catalogue rather than use the DOI as described above. If the journal is available through the Library, you will be able to access the article free of charge, while a DOI search is likely to take you to a commercial web site. If the article or other document you are citing has a DOI, this should be included at the end of the reference. No other retrieval information is then necessary; there is no need to provide a database n...

Read more

Keywords

-106 -153 -172 -1997 -202 -29 -393 -9 /0002-9432.76.4.482 /00029432.76.4.482 /ace96/papers/canberra.htm /australian/cgi-bin/news /books /cic_text/food/food /discussion/message/65 /ebooks/book_display.asp?iid=175048 /elegvar/2008/06/the-heat-breaks.html /fcwviewer/view.do?page=862 /index.php?page=cite /internet/intguide/cite.htm#harvard /itunes /jrcehp.htm /learn/faqs/numbersas-words.aspx /news/news.html /plant/gbd_p_apl1.cfm /podcast.htm /policy/policy_file.do?policyid=198 /pubpol/discussion%20papers/no91mulgan.pdf /qjer/qjer17/mcintosh.html /rn/science/ockham/or110898.htm /samplereview.asp?issue=13&id=28 /sectors/higher_education/publications_reso /sectors/higher_education/publications_resources/profiles/view /studentservices/behaviour/index.html /watch?v=mlabrwv25qq /wiki/psychometric_assessment 00219c 01315f 01624d 1 1.25 10 10.1037 104 106 10xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx 11 114 116 117 12 13 130 1313.8 139 14 1425 15 152 154 16 17 170 1700 1705 171 172 18 186 19 193 1962 1968 1969 1972 1975 1975/2009 198 1980 1982 1986 1988 1989 1990 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2 20 200 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006a 2006b 2007 2008 2009 2010 21 22 223 23 237 24 245 249 25 26 27 28 285 29 2nd 3 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 382 383 39 393 3rd 4 4.11 4.21 40 41 42 43 45 46 47 474 482 488 4bu 4th 5 50 501 508 51 521 6 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.30 66 68 689 693 6th 7 7.01 71 76 8 87 89 9 96 ab abbrevi abc abil abl aborigin abridg academ accept access accord account accur accuraci acid acknowledg acronym act action ad add addit address adelaid adher adventur advertis aerob aerospac affair afghanistan afterschool agil agre agricultur al alert alexandra alphabet also alter alway amatil american americanbookreview.org americanbookreview.org/samplereview.asp?issue=13&id=28 ampersand analysi analyt anatomi anchor announc anoth antarct antholog apa appear append appendic appendix appli applic approach appropri approxim april archetyp archipelago architectur archiv argu argument arm arnold around arrang arrendondo art articl as4458 ascd asian asiaweek ask aspir assert assess assign associ atlas attent audio australia australian author author-d author/editor author/sponsor automat avail awar away b babbi babi back bailey barker barteld base basic basin beach becom beemster begin behalf behavior behaviour behind bell bellisario belmont bender benefit bergmann better bevan beyond bibl bibliographi big biomed blackburn block blog blossom board boat bodi boller book booklet books.google.com books.google.com/books boost born boston bowi bracket brain brandt break bridg brief brisban britannica british broadcast brochur brodi brooklyn brown build bulletin bundaberg bureau burn busi butterworth/heinemann buzan c ca call campaign campbel canberra cannot canvass capac capitalis capricorn capsid captain carmona carter cascio case cassett cat catalogu categoris caus cd cd-rom centr central centrelink challeng chandler chandler-crisp chang chap chapter charg chaucer check chemistri cheroke cheshir chicago childhood cho choic chose christian chronolog citat cite citi claim clarif class classic classroom clc.cqu.edu.au clc.cqu.edu.au/fcwviewer/view.do?page=862 clear cleari climat clinton cm coca coca-cola code coke cola cole collect colleg colon come comma comment commerci commiss commission common commonwealth communic communiti compani compens competit compil complet complex compli comprehens compris comput concern concis conclud condit confer conflict confus conscious consid consult consum contain contemporari contend content convers convert cooper copi copyright coral corpor cost count countri cours court cover cowboy cqu cqunivers craik creativ crico crisp critic crossref cruis cult20024 cultur current custodi d daili dan danah darl darwin data databas date david dawson day dc death decemb deewr defenc deficit defin definit demonstr depart describ design detail develop dick dickinson dictionari diet differ differenti digit digitis dimens direct director dirksen dirt disabl disast disciplin disclaim discourag discoveri discuss disord distanc distribut divis doctor document doi dot doubl doubt dougla dr draft drawn dri drink dvd dx.doi.org dynam e e-book e-cours e-courses.cqu.edu.au e.g eal east ebook econom ecourses.cqu.edu.au ed edcu11021 edfe11010 edit editor educ education.qld.gov.au education.qld.gov.au/studentservices/behaviour/index.html edward effect either electron electronic-on eleg element ellipsi els elton email emot employ enabl encarta encourag encyclopaedia encyclopedia encyclopædia end engin enrich ensur enter entertain entri environ environment episod equal equip erlbaum error especi essay essenti establish et etc europa evalu even everi evid evolut exact exampl except excit excret exercis expect experi explain exposur express f f.a f.e face faith fall famili fantast farmer featur februari fecal feder fellner ferri festiv fewer fight figur file film film/movie final find findgalegroup.com first firth fischman five flare flu focus folk follow font food forc foreign form formal format formid forum forward found four free freedom freeli freestand frequent frog full full-stop fulli fully- function futur g g.r ganmyo gardenb gender general generat genet gesser give given gladston global go goal god goe good googl goprint govern grammar greenhous group grove grow grower growth guggenheim guid guidelin h h.e hakod hammondsport handout happen hara hard harlow harrison harvard head heal healey health heat heath heederik heidi heitkemp help herbert herbert-cheshir hero high high-funct highlight hill hist1013 histori hit hmsc11005 ho hollywood home homework honour horizon horner hour hous huang huge hugo human hundr hyperlink i.e ibrainz ice idea identif identifi iii il imag imindmap immedi implement import impress improv in-text includ inconveni incorrect increment indent independ index indic indigen individu inform inquiri insert instruct insur integr intent interact interest interfac intern internet interview introduct introductori invad investig irel ishmael islam issu ital italic italicis item iwakiri j j.h j.w jacaranda jan januari japan jazz john johnson jone journal judaism juli june justic k kang kassin kauffmann keep kell kellman kiff kindl kizo known kromhout l lab lamp lamp.infosys.deakin.edu.au lamp.infosys.deakin.edu.au/index.php?page=cite landcar lane lang languag lansdown last later latest lavend lawal lawrenc learn learner lectur led left legg legisl letter liber librari life lifelong like limit line link liquor list literatur live local locat log london long longer lost love lower ltd m ma macarthur mack mackay macmillan magazin maher mahwah maintain major make manag mani mantik manual manufactur map march margin mark market marksarvas.blogs.com marksarvas.blogs.com/elegvar/2008/06/the-heat-breaks.html marzano materi maximis may mcfeat mcgraw mcintosh mdwf29001 mean media medic medicin meet melbourn melt melvill memor mental mention messag methodolog mgmt11011 microsoft midwif might mikasa miller mind mindmap minim miseri mix mmadd mobi mobil model monitor monotheist month moodl moodle/e-courses moodle/ecourses morgan morn morri motion mp3 mulgan multipl multivolum murray murray-darl music musician must n n.d name napier nasa nasser nation nb necessari need network new newli news newsgroup newslett newspap next night nine nj nonprint normal norri north norton notabl note noth notic novemb nsw nt nucleotid number numer nurs nurs12141 ny o object observ obstacl oc occur ocean ockham octob often oht oka oldest omit one onlin open opinion opportun option order organis origin orthopsychiatri otao other otherwis overdo oxford p pacif pack packag page pagin pamphlet paper papers/abstracts para paragraph paramount paraphras parasitolog parenthes park part partial particular partner passag password past pathway patterson payment paynter pdf pearson pedagogi penguin peopl percentag period permiss person person-environ perspect perth peter peterson petti phillip phone picker pictur piec pig pineappl pipelin place plagiar plan pleas plum plural plus pluto podcast poetri point polici policy.cqu.edu.au policy.cqu.edu.au/policy/policy_file.do?policyid=198 polit pollut popular portray posit possibl post poulin power powerpoint pp practic preced predict prefer prejudic prepar present press pressur previous price pride primari princeton principl print problem procedur proceed process produc product profession program progress prolong promin properti proport propos prosecut protect protein prove provid psalm psycholog psychology.wikia.com psychology.wikia.com/wiki/psychometric_assessment psytrek public publish punctuat purpos pursuant put pyramid/main.htm q qld qsa quantit queensland queri quick quot quotat r r.l radc radio rain rais rare rather razor rcadc re read reader readili realis realist reason recent recommend record recycl refer referenc reference/citation reference/cite referencing/citing reflect region regul regular relat relationship releas relev religion remov report repres reprint reproduc reproduct republ request requir research reserv resist resourc respiratori respond respons result retriev reveal review risk river robertson rockhampton role rom ronald round royal rtcil rubric russel russell-bowi s12 s_engineering_students.htm sa saddl sadi salin sand sapovirus save say schmidt school scie11007 scienc science.nasa.gov science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm scott screen sea search season second secondari section see segment select sentenc separ septemb seri serious serv servic set seven sever shailia shameen share shea shed short show shown shrift sic signific silvest similar simpson simul sing singl site situat six size skill slide smith social societi socioeconom sociolog softwar solar someon son song soup sourc south southern space special specialis specif specifi speech spell spent spinney spirit sponsor spragu spring squar staff standard staszewski state statement statist status step still stop strain strategi string structur student studi stultz style subject subsequ substitut subtitl suggest summaris supplementari support suppos sure surnam surviv swan swarbrook sydney syllabus system tabl take task taupin teach teacher techniqu technolog technologist telephon televis tester text textbook theori therapi these thesi thompson three throw throw-away tiesdel time titl title/acronym to/cited toler tomlinson toni tonight topographi tourism track tradit trail train tran transcrib transcript transdisciplinari translat trauma treat treatment tri truth turner tutori tutorial/workshop two tyranni u uk un underag underlin understand uniqu unit univers unknown unless unpublish unrecover unterhalt updat upper upward urban urces/profiles/views_engineering_students.htm url us use usual v va valid van variat vb vehement vermeulen version veterinari viabl vic video view virolog vlaanderen vol volum w w.j w.w wa wadsworth wall walsh want war wari warm warn washington water watkin watson way weak web webster week weekend well wellek wentworth westminist wetland wheel whenev wherebi wherev whether whichev whistler white whiteboard wholli wide widen wiki wiley willi wish within without word work worker workmen workplac world would wren wright write ws8871 www.abc.net.au www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/or110898.htm www.acei.org www.acei.org/jrcehp.htm www.adveeducation.com www.amazon.com www.anu.edu.au www.anu.edu.au/pubpol/discussion%20papers/no91mulgan.pdf www.apastyle.org www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/numbersas-words.aspx www.apple.com www.apple.com/itunes www.australian.aust.com www.australian.aust.com/australian/cgi-bin/news www.crossref.org www.dest.gov.au www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_reso www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_resources/profiles/view www.ebooks.com www.ebooks.com/ebooks/book_display.asp?iid=175048 www.ecourses.cqu.edu.au www.europaworld.com www.gardenbed.com www.gardenbed.com/plant/gbd_p_apl1.cfm www.heatherenepress.com.au www.iier.org.au www.iier.org.au/qjer/qjer17/mcintosh.html www.indigenoushealth.com.au www.indigenoushealth.com.au/discussion/message/65 www.library.unisa.edu.au www.library.unisa.edu.au/internet/intguide/cite.htm#harvard www.macses.ucsf.edu www.macses.ucsf.edu/news/news.html www.nytimes.com www.pueblo.gsa.gov www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/food www.qsa.gov.au www.sciencedirect.com www.spirit.com.au www.spirit.com.au/ace96/papers/canberra.htm www.youtube.com www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlabrwv25qq wyn y yamamoto year yeppoon yet york youth youtub