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Addiction is the continued repetition of a behavior despite adverse consequences,[1] or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors.[2] Addictions can include, but are not limited to, drug abuse, exercise addiction, food addiction, sexual addiction, computer addiction and gambling. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, continued use despite consequences, and denial.[3] Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs).[4] Physiological dependence occurs when the body has to adjust to the substance by incorporating the substance into its 'normal' functioning.[5] This state creates the conditions of tolerance and withdrawal. Tolerance is the process by which the body continually adapts to the substance and requires increasingly larger amounts to achieve the original effects. Withdrawal refers to physical and psychological symptoms experienced when reducing or discontinuing a substance that the body has become dependent on. Symptoms of withdrawal generally include but are not limited to anxiety, irritability, intense cravings for the substance, nausea, hallucinations, headaches, cold sweats, and tremors. Contents [hide]

1 Substance dependence
2 Withdrawal
3 Recovery/Interventions
4 Behavioral addiction
5 Biological mechanisms
6 Personality theories of addiction
6.1 Role of affect dysregulation in addiction
6.1.1 Negative affect
6.1.2 Positive affect
6.1.3 Effortful control
6.2 Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory
6.3 Model of impulsivity
6.4 Cloninger's tri-dimensional personality theory
7 Criticism of the addiction model
8 References
9 Further reading
Substance dependence[edit]

Main article: Substance dependence
Substance dependence can be diagnosed with physiological dependence, evidence of tolerance or withdrawal, or without physiological dependence. DSM-IV substance dependencies include: 303.90 Alcohol dependence

304.00 Opioid dependence
304.10 Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic dependence (including benzodiazepine dependence and barbiturate dependence) 304.20 Cocaine dependence
304.30 Cannabis dependence
304.40 Amphetamine dependence (or amphetamine-like)
304.50 Hallucinogen dependence
304.60 Inhalant dependence
304.80 Polysubstance dependence
304.90 Phencyclidine (or phencyclidine-like) dependence
304.90 Other (or unknown) substance dependence
305.10 Ni...

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