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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pankratz, Tom M. Environmental engineering dictionary and directory / Thomas M. Pankratz. p. cm. ISBN 1-56670-543-6 (alk. paper) 1. Environmental engineering--Dictionaries. 2. Brand name products--Dictionaries. 3. Trademarks--Dictionaries. 4. Environmental engineering--Directories. I. Title. TD9 .P36 2000 628--dc21

00-044356

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-56670-543-6 Library of Congress Card Number 00-044356 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

Preface
This book has been written to help professionals, students, and lay people identify the increasing number of terms in the fields of environmental engineering and science. More than 8000 terms, acronyms, and abbreviations applying to wastewater, potable water, industrial water treatment, seawater desalination, air pollution, incineration, and hazardous waste remediation have been defined. The most unique feature of this book is the inclusion of more than 3000 trademarks and brand names. Many of these commercial terms for proprietary products or processes are so common or descriptive that they have fallen into general use. This confusion is compounded by the fact that many terms contain similar prefixes (e.g., bio-, enviro-, hydra-, hydro-, etc.) and it is often difficult to tell them apart. This book originates from Screening Equipment Handbook, first published in 1988, whose glossary contains a list of screening-related trademarks and brand names along with their company affiliation. Even though that list was relatively short, a surprisingly large number of companies had come and gone or changed their names through mergers or acquisitions. This led to an expanded directory entitled, The Dictionary of Water and Wastewater Treatment Trademarks and Brand Names, published in 1991, and which contained 1200 commercial terms. The Concise Dictionary of Environmental Engineering followed in 1996. In addition to the 2200 commercial terms, it was further expanded to include 3000 generic environmental engineering terms. Shortly after it was published, the environmental equipment manufacturing industry began a consolidation led by USFilter, Waterlink, Baker Hughes, ITT, F.B. Leopold, and others that has resulted in changes to 43% of the terms included in the 1996 edition. During the research for this book, many other books, magazines, dictionaries, glossaries, buyer’s guides, catalogs, brochures, and technical papers were reviewed to locate new terms and their definitions. Although there are too many references to list, I would like to acknowledge the help of these publications and their authors. In addition to technically reviewing this book, John B. Tonner was especially helpful with his suggestions, advice, research assistance, and computer wizardry. Regardless of when I would call, John was always available to help. His www.worldwide-water.com Web site also proved to be a valuable research tool. I would like to acknowledge the libraries that were used in my research. They include the M.D. Anderson Library at the University of Houston, the Helen Hall Library in League City, Texas, the Houston Public Library Central Branch, and the library at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Mining in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. I also recognize USFilter and Alfa-Laval for their support. I’m grateful for the assistance of the many friends and colleagues who suggested new terms and challenged old ones, helped with definitions, provided encouragement,

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or assisted in the book’s production. Some of these people include Robert W. Brown, Gordon Carter, Bill Copa, Chad Dannemann, Jim Force, Jack Gardiner, Duane Germenis, Stacie Jones, John Meidl, Mack Moore, Chad Pankratz, Bill Perpich, Barb Petroff, Jim Symons, Mark Wilson, and Joe Zuback. Like the first edition, published in 1996, much of my work on this book took place while traveling; the rest was done in the evenings and weekends. I would never have been able to finish without the continued patience and support of my wife, Julie, and our children, Chad, Sarah, Mike, and Katie. This book is dedicated to my wife, Julie Lynn Pankratz, and our grandson, Gabriel R. Suarez, who was born the same day this book was completed. Tom Pankratz

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Introduction
This dictionary contains terms used in the fields of environmental engineering and environmental science, and the definitions provided relate to their use in an environmental context only. The commercial terms represent company brand names or trademarks, and have been italicized to differentiate them from the technical terms in general usage. Whenever appropriate, the use of ™ or ® has been included following the name of the entry, although terms may be registered trademarks even though they do not include either symbol. It is also possible that some of the entries listed as trademarks may not be registered or properly used by the manufacturers listed in connection with them. Brand names and trademarks often evolve and take different forms. Variations in the use of capitalization, hyphens, or symbols often occur over time. The representation of the words included in this book reflects the latest version seen in use and are assumed to be the preferred form. Commercial acronyms are included if they are registered trademarks or commonly used abbreviations of company names. Nonregistered product model numbers and trademarks that are the same as the name of a company are not always included. Many definitions were extrapolated from stories, advertisements, or product brochures and were not directly corroborated by the company listed as being responsible for the term. The company name included in the definition of a commercial term usually represents the company that manufactures that particular product or process. In some cases, the listed company may only market, distribute, or license the product. In several instances, the same brand name has been listed more than once to describe different products or processes from different companies. The author is unaware of any dispute involving these cases and is simply reporting that the companies identified have used the term for the product described. In some cases, the term may be dormant, obsolete, or no longer available from the company listed. Company addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses listed in the Manufacturer’s Directory were confirmed over a period of several years. Some contact information may have changed, especially with the recent telephone area code changes in many parts of the U.S. Readers are cautioned that an incorrect phone number, address, or e-mail address does not mean that a company is no longer in business. There are a few cases where a company whose name is listed in a definition is not included in the Manufacturer’s Directory. If current contact information for a company could not be located, the out-of-date information was not included. Terms have been arranged alphabetically using current word processing software.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

In general, terms related to plumbing, household products, computer programs, or software have not been included. All of the terms have been listed in good faith. A reasonable attempt has been made to confirm all definitions and, in the case of commercial terms, verify the companies responsible for the listings. The author apologizes for any omissions or errors. If you are aware of any changes or additions that should be included in subsequent editions, please send them to Tom Pankratz, P.O. Box 75064, Houston, Texas USA, 77234-5064.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Foreword
The areas of environmental engineering and sciences and their related business activities have grown to the point that they overlap the professional and private lives of almost everyone. As environmental issues become more complicated, so does the vocabulary required to understand and discuss them. This Environmental Engineering Dictionary and Directory defines many terms that did not even exist a decade ago. My own field of water reclamation and reuse is an example of a relatively new area of environmental engineering that has fostered the introduction of many new terms and technologies. When considering advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters, a repeated thesis has been that such a high quality effluent should be put to beneficial use rather than simply wasted. Today, technically proven treatment and purification processes exist to provide treated water of almost any quality desired. This offers a realistic framework for considering water reclamation and reuse in many parts of the world that are experiencing water shortages. Nonpotable water reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, toilet flushing in large office buildings, and water for aesthetic and environmental purposes have become major options for planned water reuse. Water reuse provides innovative and alternative options for agriculture, municipalities, and industries. However, water reuse is only one alternative in planning to meet future water resource needs. Conservation, efficient management and use of existing water supplies, and the development of new water resources based on watershed management or seawater desalination are examples of other alternatives. As the field of environmental engineering continues to develop, so will the vocabulary required for its discussion and study. Our need to understand the environment and to better appreciate our relationship with nature is greater now than at any time in our history. Thus Tom’s book is particularly timely and relevant. Takashi Asano, Ph.D., P.E. Adjunct Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California at Davis

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A
Å See “Angstrom (Å).” A&I Alternative and Innovative. A/O® Wastewater treatment process for biological removal of nitrogen by USFilter/Krüger. A2/O® Biological treatment process for phosphorus and nitrogen removal by USFilter/Krüger. A2C™ Biological wastewater treatment system by Baker Process — Municipal Division. A·I·R Photocatalytic process to destroy VOCs by Trojan Technologies, Inc. AA See “atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA).” AAEE American Academy of Environmental Engineers. AAP Asbestos Action Program. AAPCO American Association of Pesticide Control Officials. AAQS Ambient air quality standards. AARC Alliance for Acid Rain Control. AAS American Association for the Advancement of Science. ABA1000® Alumina oxide for phosphate reduction by Selecto, Inc. ABA2000® Alumina oxide for lead and heavy metals removal by Selecto, Inc. ABA8000® Alumina oxide for fluoride removal by Selecto, Inc. abandoned well A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose. abatement Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution. abattoir A place where animals are slaughtered for their meat and meat byproducts. ABC Filter™ Automatic backwashable cartridge filter by USFilter/Rockford. Abcor® Ultrafiltration membrane product by Koch Membrane Systems, Inc. ABF Activated bio-filtration wastewater treatment system by Infilco Degremont, Inc. ABF Traveling bridge type automatic backwashing gravity sand filter by AquaAerobic Systems, Inc. abiocoen All of the geologic, climatic, and other nonliving elements of an ecosystem. abiotic Nonliving elements in the environment. ABJ™ ABJ product group of Sanitaire Corp. ablation The combined processes of glacial melting and evaporation which results in a net loss of ice. ablation zone The lower part of a glacier where the net loss of ice exceeds the net gain. ABS (1) Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. A black plastic material, used in the manufacture of pipes and other components. (2) Alkyl-benzene-sulfonate. A surfactant formerly used in synthetic detergents that resisted biological breakdown.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

absolute filter rating A filter rating which indicates that 99.9% of the particles larger than a specified size will be removed by the filter. absolute humidity The total amount of water vapor present in the air, measured in grams per cubic meter. absolute pressure The total pressure in a system, equal to the sum of the gage pressure and atmospheric pressure. absolute purity water Water with a specific resistance of 18.3 megohm-cm at 25°C. absolute zero The lowest temperature possible; 0° on the Kelvin scale or approximately –273°C (– 459.7°F). absorbate A substance used to soak up another substance. absorbed dose The amount of a chemical that enters the body of an exposed organism. absorbent Any substance that exhibits the properties of absorption. absorption The process of transferring molecules of gas, liquid, or a dissolved substance to the surface of a solid where it is bound by chemical or physical forces. absorption field A trench or pit filled with gravel or loose rock designed to absorb septic tank effluent. ABW® Traveling bridge type gravity sand filter by Infilco Degremont, Inc. abyssal zone A zone of deep oceanic waters, generally deeper than 2000 meters and between the hadal and bathyal zones where light does not penetrate. AC See “activated carbon.” AC® Industrial wastewater treatment unit by Colloid Environmental Technologies Co. ACA American Conservation Association. acaricide A pesticide used to kill spiders, ticks, or mites. ACBM Asbestos-containing building material. Accelapak® Modular water treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Accelator® Solids contact clarifier with primary and secondary mixing zones by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Accelo Hi-Cap Filter underdrain block formerly offered by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Accelo-Biox® Modular wastewater treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Accel-o-Fac™ Sewage treatment plant design by Lake Aid Systems. acceptable risk The level of risk associated with minimal adverse effects, usually determined by a risk analysis. Access Analytical Former name of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. accessory species Species found in less than half but more than one quarter of the area covered by a plant community. accident site The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous materials. acclimatization The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to changes in its environment. Accofloc® Ion exchange media by Colloid Environmental Technologies Co.

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accretion The increase in size of an inorganic body by the addition or accumulation of particles. ACCU® Air sampler by Rupprecht & Patashnick. Accuguard™ Automated pH electrode cleaning and calibration module by BIF. Accu-Mag Electromagnetic flow meter by USFilter/Wallace & Tiernan. accumulation zone The upper part of a glacier where net gain in ice exceeds the net loss. accumulator A tank installed in a circulating water system to allow for fluctuations in flow, temperature, pressure, or other variations in operation. AccuPac® Cross-corrugated surface media for biological wastewater treatment by Brentwood Industries, Inc. Accura-flo® Flumes for measuring flows by Composite Structures. Accu-Tab™ Tablet chlorination system by Hammonds and PPG Industries, Inc.. Accuvac Chemical reagents in vacuum vials for chemical analysis of fluids by Hach Co. ACE rule See “Any Credible Evidence rule (ACE rule).” acetaldehyde An organic chemical formed during the disinfection of water, most commonly associated with the use of ozone as disinfectant. Chemical formula is CH3CHO. acetic acid A weak, organic acid contained in vinegar and used in the manufacture of organic chemicals and plastics. Also called “ethanoic acid.” Chemical formula is CH3COOH. acetone A colorless, volatile liquid used in organic synthesis and as a commercial solvent. Chemical formula is CH3COCH3. ACFM Actual cubic feet per minute. ACFTD Air cleaner fine test dust. Dust used to calibrate particle counters. ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. ACH (1) See “air changes per hour (ACH).” (2) See “aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH).” ACI American Concrete Institute. acid (1) A substance that can react with a base to form a salt. (2) A substance that can donate a hydrogen ion or proton. acid deposition See “acid rain.” acid mine drainage Drainage of water from areas that have been mined for coal or other mineral ores, usually having a low pH due to contact with sulfurbearing material. acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) Measure of the ability of water or soil to resist changes in pH. acid rain Precipitation having an unusually low pH, generally attributed to the absorption of sulfur dioxide pollution in air. Also known as “acid deposition.” acid shock The biological disruption of an aquatic system that results from rapid acidification. acid-forming bacteria Microbes that can metabolize complex organic compounds under anaerobic conditions, leading to the production of methane. acidic The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.

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acidity The capacity of an aqueous solution to neutralize a base. acidophil (1) A cell or substance easily stained by acid dyes. (2) An organism that has an affinity for, and grows in, an acidic environment. Also spelled “acidophile.” ACL Alternate concentration limit. ACM Asbestos-containing material. ACM® Thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by TriSep Corp. Acme Former screening equipment manufacturer. ACM-LP™ Low pressure thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by TriSep Corp. ACMS™ Seawater reverse osmosis membrane by TriSep Corp. ACoE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Acousticair® Low noise blowers by Tuthill Pneumatics Group. ACP Air Carcinogen Policy. acre-foot The volume of water that would cover a one acre area one foot deep. Equivalent to approximately 1233.6 cubic meters or 325,900 gallons. acrolein An aldehyde compound used as a microbiocide in the manufacture of organic chemicals. Acro-Pac® Packaged seawater reverse osmosis system by Aqua-Chem, Inc. ACS-Plus High purity chemicals for laboratory use by Hach Co. ACT-100® Double wall fiberglass laminated steel underground tank by Steel Tank Institute. ACT™ Combined aeration technologies by Aeration Industries, Inc. Acticarbone® Activated carbon by Elf Atochem North America, Inc. Actifil® Packing media for biological reactors by Sanitaire Corp. Actiflo® High rate sedimentation process for water and wastewater treatment by USFilter/Krüger. Actifloc™ Modular, high-rate water treatment plant by USFilter/General Filter. Actinomycetes A group of bacteria that share some features with fungi, and recognized as a source of musty or earthy odors in drinking water. activated alumina A partially dehydrated form of aluminum oxide frequently used as an adsorbent. Chemical formula is Al2O3. Activated Biofilm Method Fixed film wastewater treatment system by JDV Equipment Corp. activated biofilter A fixed film biological wastewater treatment process where a portion of the secondary sludge is returned to the reactor influent. activated carbon (AC) A highly adsorbent form of carbon used to remove dissolved organic matter from water and wastewater or odors and toxic substances from gaseous emissions. activated charcoal See “activated carbon.” activated sludge The biologically active solids in an activated sludge process wastewater treatment plant. activated sludge process A biological wastewater treatment process where a mixture of wastewater and biologically enriched sludge is mixed and aerated to facilitate aerobic decomposition by microbes. activation energy The energy required to initiate a process or reaction. Activator Package wastewater treatment plant by Pollution Control, Inc.

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activator A chemical added to a pesticide to increase its activity. Activator III Oil recovery product by Sybron Chemicals, Inc. active ingredient In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls, target pests. active life The period of operation of a facility that begins with initial receipt of a solid waste and ends at completion of closure activities. active portion Any area of a facility where treatment, storage, or disposal operations continue to be conducted. active solar heating A heating system that derives heat from the sun’s rays and incorporates active devices such as pumps or blowers to move heat from the point of collection to the point of storage or use. Activol™ Wastewater grease emulsifier by Probiotic Solutions. Acumem Reverse osmosis product formerly offered by USFilter. Acumer® Water treatment polymers by Rohm and Haas, Co. acute exposure A single exposure to a toxic substance, usually lasting no longer than a day, which results in severe biological harm or death. acute toxicity A poisonous effect produced by a single short-term exposure which results in severe biological harm or death. Acutec Gas detection system by USFilter/Wallace & Tiernan. ACWA American Clean Water Association. ACWM (1) Asbestos-containing waste material. (2) See “asbestos-containing waste materials (ACUM).” AD Dry blending and dilution system by Komax Systems, Inc. ADA American Desalting Association. Formerly “NWSIA.” ADAM Acryloyl ethyl dimethyl amine. adaptation Changes in an organism’s structure or habits which help it adjust to its surroundings. Adcat™ Oxidation catalyst systems for air pollution control by Goal Line Environmental Technologies. Addigest® Package extended aeration wastewater treatment plant by Smith & Loveless, Inc. additive A chemical substance incorporated into another substance to improve or preserve its quality. additive mortality The total mortality caused by different factors affecting a population for a given period of time including predation, fire, or catastrophes. add-on control device An air pollution control device such as carbon absorber or incinerator that reduces the pollution in an exhaust gas. adenosine diphosphate (ADP) A compound involved in the mobilization of energy in cellular metabolism. Energy is stored by adding a phosphate group to ADP to produce ATP. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A high-energy phosphate compound that serves as the prime energy carrier in living organisms. Energy is released when ATP is converted to ADP and phosphate. adenovirus A waterborne pathogen that causes upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis. ADF See “average daily flow (ADF).”

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adhesion The force of molecular attraction between unlike molecules. ADI Acceptable daily intake. adiabatic lapse rate The constant rate at which temperatures decrease as altitude increases. In a dry atmosphere the dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) is approximately –1.00°C/100 m rise. adit A horizontal passageway into a mine to provide access or drainage. AdjustAir® Adjustable coarse bubble air diffuser by USFilter/Diffused Air Products Group. Adjust-O-Pitch Mixing propellers with adjustable pitch blades by Walker Process Equipment. administrative order An EPA-issued order directing an individual, business, or other entity to take corrective action or refrain from an activity. admixture (1) A material or substance added in mixing. (2) A substance other than cement, aggregate, or water that is mixed with concrete. Ad-Ox Polishing scrubber for odor abatement by Purafil, Inc. ADP See “adenosine diphosphate (ADP).” Adpec Horizontal vacuum filter by Komline-Sanderson Engineering Corp. ADR (1) Accidental rectal discharge. (2) Alternative dispute resolution. ADROWPU® Water purification unit by Zenon Environmental, Inc. Adsep™ Chromatographic process for separating organic and inorganic compounds by USFilter/Rockford. Adsolv Activated carbon VOC control system by CSM Worldwide/RaySolv. adsorbable organic halides (AOX) The gross measurement of all chlorinated organic compounds in an effluent. adsorbate A material adsorbed on the surface of another. adsorbent A material used to adsorb substances to its surface. adsorption The process of transferring a substance from a liquid to the surface of a solid where it is bound by chemical or physical forces. Adsorption Clarifier™ Upflow buoyant media flocculator/clarifier by USFilter/Microfloc. adulterants Chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong in a food or pesticide. adulterated (1) Any pesticide whose strength or purity falls below the quality stated on its label. (2) A food, feed, or product that contains illegal pesticide residues. Advance® Chlorine gas feeder systems by Capital Controls Co. Advanced Fluidized Composting™ A combined biological and chemical sludge treatment process by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. advanced oxidation process (AOP) A process using a combination of disinfectants such as ozone and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize toxic organic compounds to nontoxic form. advanced secondary treatment Secondary wastewater treatment with enhanced solids separation. advanced treatment plant (ATP) A treatment facility using processes that provide treatment to levels greater than that of a conventional plant. advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) Treatment processes designed to remove pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and a high percentage of suspended

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solids which are not adequately removed by conventional secondary treatment processes. advection The transfer of heat by horizontal currents of air. Advent® Package water treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc. advisory A nonregulatory document that communicates risk information to those who may have to make risk management decisions. AEM Acoustic emission monitoring. aeolian deposit Soil deposited by the wind. Aeralater® Packaged iron and manganese removal system by USFilter/General Filter. aerated pile composting A composting method where municipal wastewater solids are mixed with a bulking material and the mixture placed over a forced air ventilation system. aeration The addition of air or oxygen to water or wastewater, usually by mechanical means, to increase dissolved oxygen levels and maintain aerobic conditions. Aeration Engineering Resources Corp. Former name of Aercor product group of Sanitaire Corp. Aeration Panel™ Fine bubble membrane diffuser panel by Parkson Corp. aerator A device used to introduce air or oxygen into water or wastewater. Aerators, Inc. Former name of USFilter/Aerator Products. Aercor Aeration and packing products by Sanitaire Corp. Aer-Degritter Aerated grit removal system by USFilter/Headworks Products. AerFlare Air diffuser by Walker Process Equipment. Aergrid™ Floor grid aeration system by Aeration Technologies, Inc. Aermax® Fine pore aeration diffuser by Aeration Technologies, Inc. Aero-Accelator® Circular, packaged activated sludge treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc. aeroallergen An allergen transported by air. aerobe An organism that requires free oxygen for respiration. aerobic Condition characterized by the presence of free oxygen. aerobic digestion Sludge stabilization process involving direct oxidation of biodegradable matter and oxidation of microbial cellular material. aerobic treatment Process by which microbes decompose complex organic compounds in the presence of oxygen and use the liberated energy for reproduction and growth. Aeroburn Wastewater treatment plant by Walker Process Equipment. Aerocleve Former manufacturer whose product line is now offered by Chemineer, Inc. Aeroductor Aerated grit removal system by Lakeside Equipment Corp. Aero-Filter Rotary distributor by Lakeside Equipment Corp. Aer-O-Flo Wastewater treatment equipment product line by Purestream, Inc. aerogel A substance formed by the suspension of small bubbles of gas in a liquid or solid. Aero-Max Tubular membrane diffuser by Aeration Research Company. Aero-Mod® Wastewater treatment product line by Waterlink/Aero-Mod Systems. Aeropure Activated carbon vapor filtration system by American Norit Company, Inc.

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AeroScrub Flue gas scrubber by Aeropulse, Inc. Aerosep® Multi-stage aerosol separation system by Kimre, Inc. aerosols A suspension of collodial particles in air or another gas. Aero-Surf Air driven rotating biological contactor by USFilter/Envirex. Aero-Terra-Aqua ATA Technologies, Inc. Aerotherm In-vessel composting system by Fairfield Service Co. AerResearch Aeration diffuser product line by Aeration Research Company. Aershear™ Coarse bubble diffuser by Aeration Technologies, Inc. Aertec™ Air diffuser product line by Aeration Technologies, Inc. Aertube™ Static tube aerators by Aeration Technologies, Inc. Aethalometer™ An aerosol black carbon monitor for measuring agricultural burning, diesel emissions and speciation of fine particles by Andersen Instruments, Inc. AF Series™ Backwashable filter and carbon treatment units by Asahi America. AFC™ Advanced fluidized composting process by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. AFD Adjustable frequency drive. affected public The people who live and/or work near a hazardous waste site. affluent stream A stream or river flowing into a larger river or lake. afforestation The process of establishing a forest where one did not previously exist. AFO Air fail open. AFOs Animal feeding operations. AFPA American Forest and Paper Association. Also called “AF&PA.” AfterBlend Output booster for chemical feed system by USFilter/Stranco. afterburner A device used to reduce air emissions by incinerating organic matter in a gas stream. aftercondenser A condenser installed as the last stage of an evaporator venting system to minimize atmospheric steam discharge. aftergrowth The increase of bacterial density in treated distribution water caused by growth of bacteria released from pipewall biofilm and sediments. aftershock Any seismic tremor following a main earthquake event and originating at or near the same place. AFX™ Ozone instrumentation products by IN USA, Inc. agar A gelatinous substance extracted from a red algae, commonly used as a medium for laboratory cultivation of bacteria. agar plate A circular glass plate, containing agar or another nutrient-medium, used to culture microorganisms. AGC Association of General Contractors of America. age tank A tank used to store a chemical solution of known concentration for feed to a chemical feeder. Also called a day tank. agent Any substance, organism, or active force that produces an effect or change. Agent Orange A dioxin-containing toxic herbicide used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. aggessive water Water having corrosive qualities. agglomerate To gather fine particles into a larger mass.

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aggrade To build up the level or slope of a river bed or valley by the deposit of sediment. AGI Acute gastrointestinal illnesses. Agidisc® Disc filter with integrated agitation system by Baker Process. Agisac Sock-type screening sack by Copa Group. AGMA American Gear Manufacturers Association. agrichemical Any inorganic, artificial, or manufactured chemical substances used in agricultural processes, usually in the form of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. agricultural pollution Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; erosion and dust from plowing; improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses; crop residues; and debris. agrochemical A substance such as a fertilizer or insecticide used in agriculture. agro-ecosystem Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; the associated atmosphere; and the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks. agronomy Branch of agriculture that deals with the raising of crops and the care of the soil. AHERA Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act. AhlFloat™ Dissolved air flotation by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. Ahlstrom Aquaflow Former name of wastewater equipment product group acquired by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. AhlSurf™ Surface aerator by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. A-horizon Topsoil, or the uppermost layer of soil, containing the highest accumulation of mineral and organic matter. AHS See “aquatic humic substances (AHS).” AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) A usually fatal disease in which the human body can no longer defend itself against infections. AIDS is caused by the HIV retrovirus which is transmitted by the exchange of body fluids. AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association. air The mixture of gases, primarily oxygen and nitrogen, that surrounds the earth and forms its atmosphere. air binding (1) A condition where air enters filter media and harms both the filtration and backwash processes. (2) The obstruction of water flow in a pipeline or pump due to the entrapment of air. air bound See “air binding.” air changes per hour (ACH) The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a building has one air change per hour, it means that all of the air in the building will be replaced in a one-hour period. Air Comb® Coarse bubble diffuser by Amwell, Inc. air contaminant Smoke, dust, fume, gas, odor, mist, radioactive substance vapor, pollen, or any combination thereof. air curtain A vertical barrier of air bubbled upward through water to contain oil spills or discourage fish from entering polluted water.

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air diffuser A device designed to transfer atmospheric oxygen into a liquid. air gap An open vertical gap or empty space that separates drinking water supply from another water system in a treatment plant or other location to protect it from contamination by backflow or backsiphonage. Air Grid™ Sand filter air scour system by Roberts Filter Group. air lock The condition that occurs when air accumlates in a high point of a pipeline, reducing or blocking the flow of water. air mass A large body of air that has uniform properties such as temperature and humidity. air padding Pumping dry air into a container to assist with the withdrawal of liquid or to force a liquified gas such as chlorine out of the container. air pollutant Airborne gases, liquids, or solids that may be hazardous to animal or plant life. air pollution The presence in the atmosphere of any airborne gases, liquids, or solids that may be hazardous to animal or plant life. air pollution episode A period of abnormally high concentration of air pollutants, often due to low winds and temperature inversion, that can cause illness and death. air purifying respirator (APR) A respirator that uses physical and/or chemical means to filter air breathed by the user. Air Quality Control Region Federally designated area that is required to meet and maintain federal ambient air quality standards. air quality criteria The levels of pollution and lengths of exposure above which adverse health and welfare effects may occur. air quality related value (AQRV) A value referring to the reduction in visibility that may be caused by a new air emission. Air Quality Standards The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that may not be exceeded during a given time in a defined area. air scour The agitation of granular filter media with air during the filter backwash cycle. Air Seal Coarse bubble diffuser by Jet, Inc. Air Shuttle Wastewater aeration system by Meurer Industries, Inc. air stripping The process of removing volatile and semivolatile contaminants from liquid by passing air and liquid countercurrently through a packed tower. air toxics Any air pollutant for which a NAAQS does not exist that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations, or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans. Airamic® Air/gas diffuser by Ferro Corp. AiRanger Tank level measurement system by Milltronics, Inc. Airbeam™ Aluminum aeration basin cover by Enviroquip, Inc. Airbrush™ Rotor aerator by United Industries, Inc. AirCirc™ Assembly used to maintain the vortex within a wastewater degritter by Fluidyne Corp. Airco Former name of BOC Gases. Aircushion Flotation clarifier by Wilfley Weber, Inc.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Aire-O2® Propeller aspirator aerator by Aeration Industries, Inc. Air-Grit Aerated grit removal system by Walker Process Equipment. AirJection™ Aeration system by Mazzei Injector Corp. AirLance™ In-vessel composting technology by CBI Walker, Inc. (licensee) and American Bio Tech, Inc. (licensor). airlift A device for pumping liquid by injecting air near the bottom of a riser pipe submerged in the liquid to be pumped, lowering the specific gravity of the fluid mixture, and allowing it to rise up the riser pump. Airmaster Floating aerator by Airmaster Aerator. AirMASTER Wet particulate scubber by Fen-Tech Environmental, Inc. Air-Mix® Pulsed bed filter surface cleaning process by USFilter/Zimpro. Airmizer Air diffuser by USFilter/Diffused Air Products Group. Airoflo™ Rotor aerator by S&N Airoflo, Inc. Air-O-Lator® Floating aerator by Air-O-Lator Corp. AiroPump Air lift pump by Walker Process Equipment. AirOXAL® Pure oxygen process by Air Liquide America. AirRaider™ MTBE pump and treat system by Product Level Control, Inc. AirRide Density contolling system for compost in-feed by the former Waste Solutions. Airsep Aerated grit collector system by USFilter/Aerator Products. AirSep® Pressure swing adsorption oxygen systems by AirSep Corp. AirTainer™ Tank cover by NuTech Environmental Corp. air-to-cloth ratio Bag house application criteria which is the ratio of the air flow line to net cloth area. air-to-water ratio Air stripping application criteria indicating the volume of air required per volume of water to remove volatile contaminants. Airvac® Vacuum sewage collection system by Airvac, Inc. AISC American Institute of Steel Construction. AISI American Iron and Steel Institute. AIWPS Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond System. Akta Klor Sodium chlorite solution by Vulcan Performance Chemicals. Aktivox Selective oxidant with specificity for sulfides by Vulcan Performance Chemicals. AL Acceptable level. alabaster A compact, fine-grained gypsum material. alachlor A herbicide used mainly to control weeds in corn and soybean fields and marketed under the trade name Lasso. ALAPCO Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officers. Alar Trade name for a pesticide used primarily to make apples redder, firmer, and less likely to fall off trees prematurely. ALARA As low as reasonably achievable. Albrivap High temperature additive for evaporators by Albright & Wilson Americas. Alcofix® Inorganic coagulant by Ciba Specialty Chemicals. alcohol A class of compounds containing the hydroxyl group OH. aldehyde A class of organic compounds produced by the oxidation of alcohols containing a CHO group including formaldehyde and acetylaldehyde.

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aldicarb An insecticide made from ethyl isocyanate and sold under the trade name Temik. aldrin An insecticide and suspected carcinogen which has been banned for agricultural use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). alga The singular form of “algae.” algae Primitive, free-floating, plant-like aquatic organisms whose biological activity affect the pH and dissolved oxygen content in a water body. Algae Sweep Automation Automated clarifier algae sweep system by Ford Hall Co., Inc. AlgaeMonitor On-line fluorometer to monitor relative algae levels in a water system by Turner Designs. algal bloom A rapidly reproducing floating colony of algae that may cover a stream, lake, or reservoir, creating a nuisance condition. AlgaSORB® Ion exchange medium for heavy metal removal by Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. algicide Any substance used to kill algae. Also “algaecide.” aliphatic compounds Organic compounds with carbon atoms arranged in a straight or branched chain, rather than a ring. aliquot The amount of a sample used for analysis. Alizair® Fixed growth biotreat system for removal of odorous compounds from wastewater by USFilter/Krüger and OTV. alkali A substance with highly basic properties. alkali metals The elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. alkaline Water containing sufficient amounts of alkalinity to raise the pH above 7.0. alkaline soil Soil with a pH greater than 7.0. alkalinity The ability of a water to neutralize an acid due to the presence of carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide ions. Alkalinity First™ Sodium bicarbonate by Church & Dwight Co. Inc. alkaloid Any of a group of organic compounds containing nitrogen and having alkaline properties including caffeine, cocaine, morphine, nicotine, and strychnine. alkalosis Abnormal condition in the body resulting from an excess alkalinity and an increased blood and tissue pH, often caused by exposure to low-oxygen air found at high altitudes. Alka-Pro® Process control system for biological wastewater treatment systems by USFilter/Davco. All Climate™ Field-erected package wastewater plant by USFilter/Davco. allergen A substance inducing an allergic state or reaction. allergy A hypersensitivity to a particular substance such as food, pollen, or dust that causes the immune system to overreact to the substance. Allied Colloids Former name of Ciba Specialty Chemicals. Allis-Chalmers Former name of A-C Compressor Corp. Allison Internally fed rotating drum screen by KRC (Hewitt) Inc. allotropy The ability of an element to exist naturally in different forms in the same solid, liquid, or gaseous state.

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alluvial soil Soil formed of material that was carried by flowing water before being deposited. alpha factor The ratio of oxygen transfer coefficients for water and wastewater at the same temperature and pressure; used in the sizing of aeration equipment. alpha particle A positively charged atomic particle composed of two neutrons and two protons released by some atoms undergoing radioactive decay. alpha radiation A stream of positively charged particles released from radioactive isotopes. alpha ray A stream of particles emitting from the nucleus of a helium atom undergoing disintegration. alpine tundra An ecosystem found at high altitudes, above the timberline, characterized by mosses, lichens, and low-growing herbaceous plants. ALR Action leakage rate. alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than traditional fossil fuels or nuclear energy, and which are usually renewable and nonpolluting. Alternative energy sources include solar energy, wave power, wind power, geothermal power, and biomass fuels. alum Common name for aluminum sulfate, frequently used as a coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. Chemical formula is Al2(SO4)3. alum sludge Sludge resulting from treatment process where alum is used as a coagulant. Alumadome Self supporting aluminum covers for circular tanks by Conservatek Industries, Inc. Alumavault Self supporting aluminum covers for rectangular tanks by Conservatek Industries, Inc. alumina A form of aluminum oxide, also called “corundum” or “emery.” Chemical formula is Al203. aluminum A lightweight, nonferrous metal with good corrosion resistance and electrical and thermal conductivity. Chemical symbol is Al. aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) Water treatment coagulant. aluminum sulfate See “alum.” AlumStor Modular liquid storage tank and feed system by ModuTank, Inc. Alundum Porous diffuser dome by Sanitaire Corp. Alusil 70™ Custom-activated zeolites by Selecto, Inc. amalgam An alloy of mercury with one or more other metals. Silver amalgam is used as a dental filling. Amazon™ Pulse jet baghouse filter bags by W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Amberjet® Ion exchange resins by Rohm & Haas, Co. Amberlite® Ion exchange resins by Rohm & Haas, Co. Amberpack™ Ion exchange resins by Rohm & Haas, Co. Ambersomb® Carbonaceous adsorbent for VOC removal by Rohm & Haas Co. ambient air quality A general term used to describe the condition of the outdoor air. amendment Organic material or bulking agent such as wood chips or sawdust added to municipal solids in a composting operation to promote uniform air flow.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Amerfloc® Polyelectrolyte used to enhance liquid/solid separation by Ashland Chemical, Drew Industrial. America Norit Former name of Norit Americas Inc. American Well Works Former name of Amwell Inc. Ameroid Polyelectrolyte used to enhance liquid/solid separation by Ashland Chemical, Drew Division. Amersep® Coagulants and metal precipitants used in water and wastewater treatment by Ashland Chemical, Drew Industrial. amines A group of compounds that are derivatives of ammonia with a hydrocarbon group replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms. amino acid A group of organic acids containing an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) that link together to form the proteins necessary for all life. Aminodan™ Process Process water treatment and recovery process by Biothane Corp. AmmonAsorb™ Activated carbon product by Waterlink/Barnebey Sutcliffe. ammonia A compound of hydrogen and nitrogen that occurs extensively in nature. Chemical formula is NH3. ammonia nitrogen The quantity of elemental nitrogen present in the form of ammonia and the ammonium ion. ammoniator A device used to feed gaseous ammonia. ammonification Bacterial decomposition of organic nitrogen to ammonia. ammonium ion A form of ammonia found in solution, the ion NH4+. ammonium nitrate A cystalline salt used as a source of nitrogen in the manufacture of some fertilizers and explosives. Chemical formula is NH4NO3. amoeba A single-celled protozoan microbe. Also spelled “ameba.” amoebiasis See “amoebic dysentery.” Also spelled “amebiases.” amoebic dysentery A form of dysentery caused by a protozoan parasite, usually resulting from poor sanitary conditions and transmitted by contaminated food or water. Also spelled “amebic dysentery.” amoebicide Any substance used to kill amoebas, either medicinally for treatment of amoebic dysentery or to sterilize water. Also spelled “amebicide.” amorphous Non-crystalline, having no definite shape or form. AMOS Air Management Oversight System. amperometric titrator Titration device containing an internal indicator or electrometric device to show when the reactions are complete. amphibian (1) A member of the Amphibia class of cold blooded, scaleless vertebrates which includes frogs and salamanders. (2) A plant or animal that can live both on land or in water. Amphidrome™ Fixed-film sequencing batch biological filter by Tetra Process Technologies. Ampho-Mag™ Magnesia compound to absorb and buffer chemical spills by Premier Chemicals. amphoteric Capable of reacting in water either as a weak acid or weak base. AMSA Association of Metropolitan Sewer(age) Agencies.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

anabatic wind A localized wind that flows up valley or mountainous slopes, usually in the afternoon, caused by the replacement of cool valley air with the warmer, heated air above it. anabiosis A temporary state of suspended animation undergone by some aquatic organisms to survive periods of drought. anabolism The process in a plant or animal in which food is metabolized into complex compounds such as protein and living tissue. anaerobe An organism that can thrive in the absence of free oxygen. anaerobic Condition characterized by the absence of free oxygen. anaerobic digestion Sludge stabilization process where the organic material in biological sludges are converted to methane and carbon dioxide in an airtight reactor. Anaerobic Selector Process Biological system for phosphorus and BOD removal by USFilter/Davco. Analite Portable turbidimeters by Advanced Polymer Systems. analyte The chemical for which a sample is analyzed. ANC See “acid neutralizing capacity (ANC).” An-CAT® Polymer processing control unit by Norchem Industries. ancillary equipment Devices such as piping, flanges, valves, and pumps which are used in conjunction with treatment process or system. Anco Batch mixers by Enviropax, Inc. anemometer An instrument used to measure the force or velocity of wind. aneroid barometer An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure which operates on the movement of a thin metal plate rather than the rise and fall of mercury. angle of repose The maximum angle the inclined surface of a loosely divided material can make with the horizontal. Angstrom (Å) A unit of measure equivalent to one ten-thousandth of a micron. anhydride A chemical compound derived by the elimination of water. anhydrite See “calcium sulfate.” anhydrous A compound or substance that does not contain water. animal unit (AU) A unit for establishing grazing pressures from different kinds of grazing animals which consume similar kinds of forage, where 1AU is equivalent to the weight of 1 cow and 1 calf set at 454 kg. anion A negatively charged ion that migrates to the anode when an electrical potential is applied to a solution. anion exchange An ion exchange process in which anions in solution are exchanged for other anions bound to an ion exchange resin or medium. anionic polymer A polyelectrolyte with a net negative electrical charge. Anitron Biological fluidized bed wastewater treatment system by USFilter/Krüger. ANM™ Nanofiltration softening membrane by TriSep Corp. annelid A wormlike organism, including earthworms and leeches, which have long, segmented bodies. Annubar® Mass flow monitoring system by Dieterich Standard. anode The positive electrode where current leaves an electrolytic solution.

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anodic protection Electrochemical corrosion protection achieved through the use of an anode having a higher electrode potential than the metal to be protected. anoxia A condition in which the blood oxygen level is less than normal. anoxic Condition characterized by the absence of free oxygen. ANOX-R Advanced treatment industrial wastewater treatment system by USFilter/Davco. ANPRM Advance Notice for Public Rulemaking. An EPA program for holding public forums for potential changes to the federal Water Quality Standard regulations. ANSI American National Standards Institute. antagonism Interference or inhibition of the effect of one chemical by the action of another. antarctic Characteristic of the region, climate, or vegetation south of the Antarctic Circle. Antarctic Circle An imaginary circle parallel to the equator at latitude 66°34′ south. Anthozoa A class of saltwater polyps including corals and sea anemones. anthracite A hard, black coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon, a low percentage of volatile matter, and burns with little or no smoke. anthracosis A lung disease more commonly known as “black lung disease.” Anthrafilt® Filter anthracite by Unifilt Corp. anthropodust Fugitive dust generated from human activities. anthropogenic climate change Human-induced global warming caused primarily by carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions from engine exhausts, as well as respiration of humans and animals. anthropogenic compounds Compounds created by human beings, often relatively resistant to biodegradation. antichlors Reagents such as sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, and sodium thiosulfate which can be used to remove excess chlorine residuals from water by conversion to an inert salt. anti-degradation clause See “prevention of significant deterioration (PSD).” antifoam agent A surface active agent used to reduce or prevent foaming. antifoulant An additive or dispersant that prevents fouling and/or the formation of scale. antigen A substance capable of stimulating an immune response. antiknock additive A compound, usually tetraethyl lead, added to gasoline to minimize engine pre-ignition and its’ accompanying knocking or pinging. Pollution from the release of these compounds in auto emissions led to the introduction of nonleaded gasoline. antioxidant A substance that slows down or prevents oxidation of another substance. antiscalant An additive that prevents the formation of inorganic scale. Any Credible Evidence rule (ACE rule) Another name for EPA Clean Air Act “Credible Evidence rule.” AOB Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. AOC See “assimilable organic carbon (AOC).”

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

AOPs See “advanced oxidation processes (AOP).” AOT Advanced oxidation technologies. AOX See “adsorbable organic halides (AOX).” APCA Air Pollution Control Association. APER Air pollution emissions report. APF See “assigned protective factor (APF).” APHA American Public Health Association. API American Petroleum Institute. API gravity An index inversely related to specific gravity used to identify liquid hydrocarbons. API separator Rectangular basin in which wastewater flows horizontally while free oil rises and is skimmed from the surface. APOVAC® Anti-pollution vacuum system for solvent recovery by Rosenmund, Inc. apparent color The color in water caused by the presence of suspended solids. approach velocity The average water velocity of fluid in a channel upstream of a screen or other obstruction. APR See “air purifying respirator (APR).” APTI Air Pollution Training Institute. APWA American Public Works Association. AQCCT Air-quality criteria and control techniques. AQCP Air Quality Control Program. AQCR Air Quality Control Region. AQRV See “air quality related value (AQRV).” AQTX Aquatic toxicity. Aqua Bear Medium density foam pipeline cleaners by Girard Industries, Inc. Aqua Criss Cross Medium density coated foam pipeline cleaners by Girard Industries, Inc. Aqua Guard® Self cleaning bar screen by Parkson Corp. Aqua Pigs™ Polyurethane foam pipeline cleaners by Girard Industries, Inc. Aqua Swab Soft polyurethane pipeline cleaners by Girard Industries, Inc. Aqua UV™ Ultraviolet water disinfection systems by Trojan Technologies, Inc. Aqua-4™ Surface water treatment plant by Smith & Loveless, Inc. AquaABF™ Traveling bridge type automatic backwash package filter by AquaAerobic Systems, Inc. Aquabelt® Gravity belt thickener by Ashbrook Corp. (U.S.) Simon-Hartley, Ltd. (U.K.). AquaCalc Open channel flow computer by JBS Instruments. AquaCAM-D Aerator/mixer/decanter for use in sequencing batch reactor by AquaAerobic Systems, Inc. Aqua-Carb Activated carbon by USFilter/Westates. Aqua-Cat® Sulfide conversion process to control odors by USFilter/Gas Technologies. Aqua-Cell™ Package water treatment plant by WesTech Engineering Inc. Aquaclaire™ Wastewater treatment systems by DAS International, Inc. Aquacode Membrane vessels by Spaulding Composites Co.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

aquaculture The managed production of fish or shellfish in a pond or lagoon. AquaDDM® Direct drive mixers by Aqua-Aerobics Systems, Inc. AquaDecant® Floating decanter by AquaTurbo Systems. Aquadene™ Corrosion and scale control products by Stiles-Kem Division, Met Pro Corp. AquaDisk™ Woven cloth tertiary filter by Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. Aquafeed® Reverse osmosis antiscalants by B.F. Goodrich Co. Aqua-Fer™ Well water treatment plant designed for iron removal by Smith & Loveless, Inc. Aqua-Fix™ Dissolved ionic contaminant removal system by ATA Technologies Corp. Aquaflow Former name of product group acquired by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. Aqua-Jet® Direct drive aerators by Aqua-Aerobics Systems, Inc. Aqua-Lator® High speed floating aerator by USFilter/Aerator Products. AquaLift® Screw pump by Parkson Corp. Aquamag® Magnesium hydroxide by Premier Chemicals. AquaMax™ Desalination evaporator antiscalant by BetzDearborn, Inc. Aquamite® Electrodialysis water treatment systems by Ionics, Inc. AquaMJA™ Manifold jet aerator by Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. Aquaport® Seawater desalination system by Ambient Technologies, Inc. Aquaray® Ultraviolet disinfection system by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Aquaritrol® Coagulant control system using a programmable controller by USFilter/Microfloc. Aquarius® Modular water treatment plant by USFilter/Microfloc. AquaSBR® Sequencing batch reactor by Aqua-Aerobics Systems, Inc. Aquascan On-line VOC monitor by Sentex Systems, Inc. Aqua-Scrub™ Powdered activated carbon adsorption system by USFilter/Westates. AquaSEAL™ Sequencing extended aeration lagoon system by Aqua-Aerobics Systems, Inc. Aqua-Sensor Control system for water softener regeneration by Culligan International Corp. Aquashade® Aquatic plant growth control by Applied Biochemists, Inc. Aqua-Shear Mixer by Flow Process Technologies, Inc. Aquasorb® Carbon adsorption treatment systems by Hadley Industries. Aquasource® Membrane system by Infilco Degremont, Inc. Aquaspir® Shaftless dewatering screw by Andritz-Ruthner, Inc. Aquastore® Storage tanks by A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products. Aquatair Packaged biological wastewater treatment plant by BCA Industrial Controls, Ltd. Aquatec® Solid media contact filter vessels by Colloid Environmental Technologies Co. Aquatech Systems Former name of Aqualytics, Inc. aquatic humic substances (AHS) Humic substances in true solution that exhibit colloidal properties. Aquatreat™ Sequencing batch reactor by EnviroSystems Supply.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Aqua-Trim™ Tray-type air stripper by Delta Cooling Towers, Inc. AquaTurbo® Surface aerator and mixer products by AquaTurbo Systems. Aquavap Vapor compression type evaporator by Licon, Inc. Aqua-View Particle measuring system by Particle Measuring Systems, Inc. Aquaward® Tablet feeder disinfection system by Exceltec International Corp. Aquazur V® Rapid sand gravity filter by Infilco Degremont, Inc. aqueduct A conduit for carrying running water. aqueous Something made up of, similar to, or containing water. aqueous chlorine Term used to describe chlorine or chlorine compounds dissolved in water, often mistakenly called “liquid chlorine.” aqueous solution A solution in which water is the solvent. aquiclude A low-permeability underground rock formation that absorbs water slowly but will not allow its free passage. aquifer A subsurface geological formation containing a large quantity of water. aquifuge An underground layer of impermeable rock that will not allow the free passage of groundwater. Aquilair® Oxidation process for removal of VOC compounds from wastewater by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. AQuit™ Sulfide control product by USFilter/Davis Process. Aquox™ Potassium permanganate by Nalon Chemical, distributed by American International Chemical, Inc. arable Land capable of being farmed. ARAR Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Cleanup standards, control standards and other substantive environmental protection requirements, criteria, and limitations promulgated under federal, state, and local laws. Arc Screen™ Self cleaning curved bar screen by Infilco Degremont, Inc. ARCC American Rivers Conservation Council. Archimedes’ principle The principle of buoyancy which states that the force on a submerged body acts vertically upward through the center of gravity of the displaced fluid and is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. Archimedes’ screw pump See “screw pump.” archipelago A group or chain of many islands. arctic Characteristic of the region, climate, or vegetation north of the Arctic Circle. Arctic Circle An imaginary circle parallel to the equator at latitude 66°34′ north. Arcticaer High speed surface aerator with submersible motor by USFilter/Aerator Products. area source Any small source of non-natural air pollution that is released over a relatively small area but which cannot be classified as a point source, including vehicles and other small engines, small businesses and household activities. Argo Scientific Former name of BetzDearborn-Argo District. ARI Sulfur recovery and odor control product line by USFilter/Gas Technologies. ARI See “average rainfall intensity (ARI).” Aria™ Water treatment system by Pall Corp. Aries™ Filtration air scour technology by Roberts Filter Group. arithmetic mean The sum of a set of observations divided by the number of observations.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Arm & Hammer® Sodium bicarbonate by Church & Dwight Co. Inc. Armco Former sluice gate manufacturer acquired by Hydro Gate Corp. Arna® Ultraviolet disinfection system by Arlat, Inc. aromatics A group of hydrocarbon compounds, including benzene, containing a closed ring structure. array (1) A staged arrangement of membrane elements in a system. (2) A group of solar collection devices arranged in a suitable pattern to efficiently collect solar energy. Arro-Care® Reverse osmosis maintenance and support services by USFilter/Rockford. Arro-Cleaning® Membrane care services by USFilter/Rockford. Arrowhead® Water treatment product line by USFilter/Rockford. arroyo A stream or watercourse that is often dry. ARS™ Air regulated siphon by John Meunier, Inc. arsenic A naturally occurring element that is toxic to humans at very low levels. Chemical formula is As. arsenicals Pesticides containing arsenic. Artco Applied Regenerative Technologies Co. artesian water Bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer which is located above the normal water table. artesian well A well with sufficient pressure to produce water without pumping. arthropod Any of the largest phylum of invertebrate animals including insects and crustaceans having segmented bodies, exoskeletons, and jointed legs occurring in pairs. Arus Andritz Former name of Andritz-Ruthner, Inc. ASA Algae sweep automation system by Ford Hall Co., Inc. ASB Aerated stabilization basin. asbestos A mineral fiber, positively identified as a carcinogen, that does not conduct heat or electricity and formerly in wide use in the building industry for thermal insulation, soundproofing, roofing, and electrical insulation. asbestos cement pipe Pipe manufactured of a mixture of asbestos fiber and Portland cement. asbestos-containing material Construction materials that contain more than one percent asbestos. asbestos-containing waste materials (ACWM) Mill tailings or any waste that contains commercial asbestos and is generated by a source covered by the Clean Air Act Asbestos NESHAPS. asbestosis A chronic lung disease caused by exposure or inhalation of asbestos fibers. as-built drawings The original plans and specifications prepared for construction and corrected to reflect how a facility was actually built or installed. A-scale sound level (dBA) A modification of the decibel scale that approximates the sensitivity of the human ear used to note the instensity or annoyance of noise pollution. ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers. Asdor Former name of USFilter/Asdor.

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ASDWA Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. aseptic The state of being free of pathogenic organisms. ash The nonvolatile inorganic solids that remain after incineration. Ashaire Aerator product line by USFilter/Aerator Products. Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Former name of Ashbrook Corp. Ashfix™ A process to stabilize heavy metals in sludge and ash by Ashland Chemical, Drew Industrial. ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Asiatic clam A fresh water clam originally found in Southeast Asia and introduced in the U.S. in 1938. ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Aspergillus fumigatus Airborne fungi that may result from composting operations which may cause human ear, lung, and sinus infections. asphalt-rubber A mixture of ground rubber and bituminous concrete used as a pavement interlayer to reduce stress and prevent cracking. asphyxiant A vapor or gas such as carbon monoxide that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation. Aspi-Jet™ Aspirating aerator by Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. aspirating aerator Aeration device using a motor driven propeller to draw atmospheric air into the turbulence caused by the propeller to cause the formation of small bubbles. aspirator A hydraulic device that creates a negative pressure by forcing liquid through a restriction and increasing the velocity head. ASQC American Society for Quality Control. ASR See “atmosphere supplying respirator (ASR).” assay A test for a particular chemical or effect. assigned protective factor (APF) Respirator designation indicating how much contaminant will be reduced with proper respiratory fit and wear. An APF of 5 indicates that if a cubic meter of air contains 10 mg of contaminant, the effective exposure would be 10/5 or 2 mg/cu m. assimilable organic carbon (AOC) The portion of dissolved organic carbon that is easily used by microbes as a carbon source. assimilation The ability of a body of water to purify itself of pollutants. assimilative capacity The ability of a water body to receive wastewater and toxic materials without deleterious effects on aquatic life or the humans who consume the water. AST Aboveground storage tanks. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. Astrasand® Continuously cleaned sand filter by Astraco Water Engineering. Astraseparator® Inclined plate settler by Astraco Water Engineering. asymmetric membrane Membranes that are not reversible and can only desalinate efficiently in one direction. Asymmetrix™ Membrane cartridge filter by USFilter/Filtration & Separation. AT® Ozone generator by Ozonia North America. ATAD See “autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD).”

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Atara Former manufacturer of digester gas mixing equipment whose product line was acquired by Infilco Degremont, Inc. ATD™ Autotherm aerobic sludge digestion system by CBI Walker, Inc. Athos Wet air oxidation process by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. ATI Analytical Technology, Inc. ATL® Aero Tec Laboratories, Inc. Atlantes Chemical Systems Former name of Hoffland Environmental, Inc. ATLAS™ Advanced technology lagoon aeration system by Environmental Dynamics Inc. atm See “atmosphere.” atmometer An instrument used to measure the evaporative capacity of the air. atmosphere (1) The gaseous region that surrounds the earth. (2) A unit of pressure equal to 1.0333 kg/sq cm or 14.7 psi. Abbreviated “atm.” atmosphere supplying respirator (ASR) A respirator which supplies air or oxygen to the user. atmospheric corrosion Corrosion resulting from exposure to the atmosphere. atmospheric pressure The force exerted by the weight of the atmosphere above the point of measurement. At sea level, this pressure equals 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi), 760 mm (29.9 inches) of mercury column, or 10.3 m (33.9 feet) of water column. Atochem Former name of Elf Atochem North America, Inc. atoll A circular reef enclosing a shallow lagoon. atom The smallest unit of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. Atomerator® Pressure aerator for iron oxidation by USFilter/General Filter. atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA) A highly sensitive instrumental technique for measuring trace quantities of elements in water. atomize To divide a liquid into extremely fine particles. atomizer An instrument through which a liquid is sprayed to produce a fine mist. ATP (1) Average transmembrane pressure. (2) See “adenosine triphosphate (ATP).” (3) See “advanced treatment plant (ATP).” ATP™ Aerobic thermophilic process sludge treatment system by CBI Walker, Inc. ATS™ Sorbent media product line by Engelhard Corp. ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. attached growth process See “fixed film process.” attainment area A geographic area in which the levels of a criteria air pollutant meet the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standard for that pollutant. attenuation The process by which a compound is reduced in concentration over time, through absorption, adsorption, degradation, dilution, and/or transformation. attractant A chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests by stimulating their sense of smell. AU See “animal unit (AU).” Auger Monster® Modular screen/grinder/solids removal unit for wastewater headworks system by JWC Environmental. Aurora UV™ Ultraviolet disinfection system by Calgon Carbon Corp. Austgen-Biojet Former name of ABJ product group of Sanitaire Corp. Auto5™ Stack sampling system by Andersen Instruments, Inc.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

AutoBelt Rotary vacuum filter formerly offered by Walker Process Equipment. autochthonous A rock formation, organic matter, or substance that is produced or originates in the place where it is found. autoclave A device that sterilizes materials by exposure to pressurized steam. Auto-Clean Dissolved oxygen sensor by Analytical Technology, Inc. Auto-Cleanse Self-cleaning pump station with differential pressure activated flush valve by ITT Flygt Corp. Autocon Product group integrated within USFilter/Control Systems. Auto-Dox Controlled aeration weir by Purestream, Inc. autogenous combustion Burning that occurs when the heat of combustion of a wet organic material or sludge is sufficient to vaporize the water and maintain combustion without auxiliary fuel. autogenous temperature Equilibrium temperature in sludge combustion where the heat input from the fuel equals the heat losses, and combustion is self-supporting. autoignition temperature The minimum temperature at which a substance ignites without application of a flame or spark. Auto-Jet® Pressure leaf filter by USFilter/Whittier. Autojust Automatic feedwell gate controller for circular sludge collectors by USFilter/Aerator Products. automatic sampling Collecting samples of prescribed volume over a defined time period by an apparatus designed to operate remotely without direct manual control. auto-oxidation A self-induced oxidation process. Autopress High throughput automatic filter press by USFilter/Dewatering Systems. Auto-Pulse™ Tubular backpulse filter by USFilter/Whittier. Auto-Rake® Reciprocating rake bar screen by Franklin Miller, Inc. autoreactive A compound that is reactive under normal conditions and does not require heat, additional compounds, or a change in conditions. Auto-Retreat Automatic bar screen control system by Infilco Degremont, Inc. AutoSDI™ Portable, computer-based silt density index instrument by King Lee Technologies. Auto-Shell™ Granular media filter by USFilter/Whittier. Auto-Shok™ Tube-type vertical pressure leaf filter by USFilter/Whittier. Auto-Skimmer™ Skimmer used to remove floating hydrocarbons from water wells by Science Application International Corp. AutoTherm™ Aerobic thermophilic digestion system by CBI Walker, Inc. autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) A biological digestion system that converts soluble organics to lower-energy forms through anaerobic, fermentative, and aerobic processes at thermophilic temperatures. autothermic combustion See “autogenous combustion.” Autotravel Traveling bridge sludge collectors by Simon-Hartley, Ltd. Autotrol Rotating biological contactors product line by USFilter/Envirex. autotroph Organism that derives its cell carbon from carbon dioxide. Auto-Vac® Rotary drum filter by Alar Engineering Corp. autoxidation A spontaneous process in which a compound is oxidized, usually in the presence of oxygen, but other compounds can act as electron acceptors.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

available chlorine A measure of the amount of chlorine available in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials used as a source of chlorine when compared with that of liquid or gaseous chlorine. average daily flow (ADF) The total flow past a point over a period of time divided by the number of days in that period. average flow The arithmatic average of flows measured at a given point. average rainfall intensity (ARI) A measurement of rainfall per unit of time. Avery Filter Recessed chamber filter press by Komline-Sanderson, Engineering Corp. AVGF® Automatic valveless gravity filter by USFilter/Warren. AWI Anthratech Western, Inc. AWS American Welding Society. AWT See “advanced wastewater treatment (AWT).” AWWA American Water Works Association. AWWARF American Water Works Association Research Foundation. axial flow The flow of fluid in the same direction as the axis of symmetry of a tank or basin. axial flow pump A type of centrifugal pump in which fluid flow remains parallel to the flow path and develops most of its head by the lifting action of the vanes. Azenit Biological wastewater treatment process technology by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. azeotropic A liquid of two or more substances that behaves like a single substance in that the vapor produced by partial evaporation has the same composition as the liquid. Aztec® Chlorine/oxidant residual analyzer by Capital Controls Co.

B
B-10 life The rated life defining the number of revolutions that 90% of a group of identical bearings will complete before first evidence of failure develops. Also known as “L-10 life.” B2A™ Multi-media biological filter by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. Babcock Water Engineering Former name of CASS Water Engineering, Inc. BAC Biologically active carbon. bacilli Rod-shaped bacteria. back pressure Pressure due to a force operating in a direction opposite to that required. backfill The material used to refill a ditch or excavation, or the process of refilling. backflow Flow reversal in a water distribution system that may result in contamination due to a cross connection. backflow prevention device Device used to prevent cross connection, or backflow of nonpotable water into potable water system.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

background concentration The general level of air pollutants in a region with all local sources of pollution ignored. background contamination Contamination introduced accidentally into dilution waters, reagents, rinse water, or solvents which can be confused with constituents in the sample being analyzed. background level The concentration of pollutants in a definite area during a fixed period of time prior to starting up a source of emission undercontrol. background organic matter (BOM) Natural organic matter in a mixture with one or more specific organic chemicals. background radiation Nuclear radiation arising from within the human body and normal surroundings. background soil pH The pH of the soil prior to the addition of substances that alter the hydrogen ion concentration. backsiphonage A backflow of water of questionable quality that results from a negative pressure within water distribution system. backwash A high-rate reversal of flow for the purpose of cleaning or removing solids from a filter bed or screening medium. backwash rate The flow rate used during filter backwash when the direction of flow through the filter is reversed for cleaning. BACM Best available control measures. BACT Best available control technology. bacteria Microbes that decompose and stabilize organic matter in wastewater. BADT Best available demonstrated technology. BAF (1) See “biologically active filter.” (2) Biologically activated foam. baffle An obstructing device or plate used to provide even distribution or to prevent short-circuiting or vortexing of flow entering a tank or vessel. baffle chamber In incinerator design, a chamber designed to promote the settling of fly ash and coarse particulate matter by changing the direction and/or reducing the velocity of the gases produced by the combustion of the refuse or sludge. Baffleflow Oil removal tank with permeable baffles to prevent short circuiting by Walker Process Equipment. bagasse The fibrous residue from crushed sugar cane or sugar beet after the extraction of sugar juice. baghouse An air emissions control device that uses a fabric or glass fiber filter to remove airborne particulates from a gas stream. bailer A long pipe with a check valve at the lower end used to remove a slurry or oil from the bottom or side of a well. Bakflo Barge mounted oil skimmer by Vikoma International Ltd. balefill A land disposal site where solid waste material is compacted and baled prior to disposal. baler A machine used to compress and bind solid recyclable materials such as cardboard or paper. ball valve A valve utilizing a rotating ball with a hole through it that allows straight-through flow in the open position.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

ballast water Water used in a ship’s hold for stabilization often requiring treatment as an oily wastewater. Ballasted Floc Reactor™ (BFR) Reactor-clarifier system by USFilter/General Filter. ballistic separator A machine that sorts organic from inorganic matter for composting. Bamag Former name of Lurgi Bamag GmbH. banana-blade mixer High flow, low-shear mixer with rotating back-swept propeller. band application The spreading of pesticides, fertilizer, or other chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field. Bandit™ Raking machine by Brackett Geiger. bandscreen See “traveling water screen (TWS).” bank sand Sand excavated from a natural deposit, usually not suitable for use in a filter processing or grading. bar A unit of pressure equal to 0.9869 atmospheres, 106 dynes per square centimeter, 100,000 pascals, and 14.5 pounds per square inch. bar screen A screening device using a parallel set of stationary bars typically spaced at 25 mm (1 inch) to 50 mm (2 inches). Bardenpho™ Biological wastewater treatment process for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by Baker Process. Barminutor® Combination bar screen and comminuting device by Yeomans Chicago Corp. barnacles A marine crustacean with a calcareous shell that attaches itself to submerged objects. Barnebey & Sutcliffe Former name of Waterlink/Barnebey Sutcliffe. barometer An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. barometric condenser A condenser in which vapor is condensed by direct contact with water. barometric damper A pivoting plate used to regulate the amount of air entering a duct or flue to maintain a constant draft within an incinerator. barometric leg (1) A condensate discharge line submerged below the liquid level of an atmospheric tank. (2) A gravity tailpipe from a vacuum barometric condenser. barometric pressure Ambient or local pressure surrounding a gauge, evaporator shell, vent pipe, etc. barrel (bbl) 42 U.S. gallons. barriered landscape water renovation system (BLWRS) A wastewater treatment and denitrification system where wastewater is applied to the top of a mound of soil overlaying a water barrier and microbes oxidize soluble organics as the water percolates through the soil. barrier reef A long ridge of coral built up from the sea floor that runs parallel to the mainland but is separated from it by a deep lagoon. Barry Rake Trash rake by Cross Machine, Inc. BART Best available retrofit technology. Bartlett-Snow™ Rotary calciner for soil reclamation by ABB Raymond.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

basal application The application of pesticides on plant stems or tree trunks just above the soil line. base (1) A substance that can accept a proton. (2) A substance that can react with an acid to form a salt. (3) An alkaline substance. baseline A sample used as a comparative reference point when conducting further tests or calculations. basic water requirement (BWR) The amount of water required by humans for drinking, sanitation, bathing, and cooking needs to meet a minimum quality of life, and generally considered to be 50 liters per day per person. basicity factor Factor used to determine neutralization capabilities of alkaline reagents used to treat acidic wastes. basket centrifuge Batch-type centrifuge where sludge is introduced into a vertically mounted spinning basket and separation occurs as centrifugal force drives the solids to the wall of the basket. basophil A cell or substance easily stained by basic dyes. Also spelled “basophile.” Basys Biolfilter Modular air pollution control filter by Basys Technologies. BAT See “best available technology (BAT).” Batch Master Package wastewater treatment system by USFilter/Industrial Wastewater Systems. batch process A noncontinuous treatment process in which a discrete quantity or batch of liquid is treated or produced at one time. batch reactor A reactor where the contents are completely mixed and flow is neither entering nor leaving the reactor vessel. Batch-Master Bottom discharge basket centrifuge by Baker Process/Ketema. Batch-Miser Horizontal plate filter by Baker Process/Ketema. Batch-O-Matic Bottom discharge basket centrifuge by Baker Process/Ketema. BATEA Best available technology economically achievable and available. bathyal zone The ecological zone of the ocean above the abyssal zone, generally between 200 and 3500 meters. BATNEEC Best available technology not entailing excessive cost. battery limit The boundary limits of equipment or a process unit that defines interconnecting points for electrical piping or wiring. Bauer® Screening equipment product line acquired by Andritz-Ruthner, Inc. Baumé Designation of hydrometer scale used to indicate specific gravity. bauxite Ore containing alumina monohydrate or alumina trihydrate which is the principal raw material for alumina production. bbl See “barrel (bbl).” BCC See “bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCC).” BCF (1) See “bioconcentration factor (BCF).” (2) Bead and crevice free. BCL Screen Back cleaned bar screen by Waste-Tech, Inc. BCPCT Best conventional pollutant control technology. BCT Best control technology. BDAT See “best demonstrated available technology (BDAT).” BDCT Best demonstrated control technology. BDOC See “biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC).”

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

BDT Best demonstrated technology. beachwell A shallow intake well making use of beach sand and structure as a filter medium. Bead Mover™ Ion exchange resin and filter media loading pump by IX Services Co. Bead Thief™ Ion exchange resin core sampler by IX Services Co. Beaufort scale A numerical scale of wind force where a Beaufort force 0 wind is calm and a force 12 wind indicates hurricane force with winds in excess of 120 km/hr (75 mph). bed depth The depth of filter media or ion exchange resin contained in a vessel. bed load Sediment particles resting on or near the channel bottom that are pushed or rolled along by the flow of water. bed volume (BV) The volume occupied by filter media in a filter, or resin in an ion exchange device. bedrock Solid rock encountered below the mantle of loose rock and soil which occurs on the earth’s surface. Beggiatoa Filamentous microbe, commonly associated with sludge bulking, that results from low dissolved oxygen levels and/or high sulfide levels. BEI See “biological exposure indexes (BEI).” BEJ Best engineering judgement. Bekomat ® Micro-processor-driven condensate trap by BEKO Condensate Systems Corp. Bekosplit Separation process for condensate emulsions by BEKO Condensate Systems Corp. Bekox Former name of USFilter/Bekox. Belclene® Scale control additive by BioLab, Inc. Belcor Organic corrosion control by BioLab, Inc. Belgard® Antiscalant for seawater evaporators by BioLab, Inc. Belite® Antifoaming agent by BioLab, Inc. Bellacide Algaecide by BioLab, Inc. BelloZon Chlorine dioxide generator by ProMinent Fluid Controls, Inc. Beloit-Passavant Company acquired by USFilter/Zimpro. Belspere® Chemical dispersant by BioLab, Inc. belt conveyor A device used to transport material, consisting of an endless belt that revolves around head and tail pulleys. belt filter press See “belt press.” belt press A dewatering device utilizing two fabric belts revolving over a series of rollers to squeeze water from the sludge. belt thickener Mechanical sludge processing device that uses a revolving horizontal filter belt to pre-thicken sludge prior to dewatering and/or disposal. bench test A small scale test or study used to determine whether a technology is suitable for a particular application. beneficial organism A pollinating insect, pest predator, parasite, pathogen, or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

benthal oxygen demand The oxygen demand exerted by microbes and other organisms living on, or in close association with, the organic mud and sludge deposits on the bottom of a river or stream. benthic Relating to the bottom environment of a water body. benthos Microbes and other organisms living on or in close association with the bottom of a water body. BentoLiner™ Clay composite liner by SLT North America, Inc. Bentomat™ Geotextile-bentonite liner by Colloid Environmental Technologies Co. bentonite Colloidal clay-like mineral that can be used as a coagulant aid in water treatment systems. Sometimes used as the earth component or soil amendment for construction of a pond or landfill liner because of its low permeability. benzene A colorless, flammable liquid with carcinogenic properties produced from coal tar and used as a solvent. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon characterized by its six-sided ring structure with the chemical formula C6H6. Bepex Former name of Hosokawa Bepex Corp. berm A horizontal, earthen ridge or bank. Bernoulli’s Equation Energy equation commonly used to calculate head pressure, and considers velocity head, static head, and elevation. beryllium An airborne metal hazardous to human health when inhaled that may be discharged by machine shops, ceramic and propellant plants, and foundries. best available technology (BAT) The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available after considering field, rather than solely laboratory conditions. best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) A technology demonstrated in full-scale commercial operation and shown to have statistically better performance than other technologies. best management practice (BMP) The schedules of activities, methods, measures, and other accepted industry management practices to prevent pollution of waters and facilitate compliance with applicable regulations. Beta NOx 2000™ NOx oxidation/reduction unit by Duall Division, Met-Pro Corp. beta particles Electrons emitted by a radioactive nucleus. beta radiation A stream of beta particles released during radioactive decay. Betz Laboratories Former name of BetzDearborn, Inc. BevMAX™ Reverse osmosis system for beverage industry applications by USFilter. BFI® Trademark of Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc. BFR See “Ballasted Floc Reactor™ (BFR).” B-Gon™ Mist eliminator by Kimre Inc. BGS2 Sludge dryer/pelletizer formerly offered by Wheelabrator Water Technologies, Inc. BHN Probiotic Lagoon sludge oxidation product line by Bio Huma Netics, Inc. B-horizon The intermediate soil layer, usually having a high clay content, where minerals and other particles washed down from the A-horizon accumulate. bhp Brake horsepower. The power developed by an engine as measured by a dynamometer applied to the shaft or flywheel.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Bibbigard Torque limitor by Brunel Corp. Bibo Dewatering and drainage pumps by ITT Flygt Corp. bicarbonate A chemical compound containing an HCO3 group. bicarbonate alkalinity Water alkalinity caused by bicarbonate ions. bicarbonate hardness Water hardness caused by calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate. BI-CHEM Surfactant degradation product by Sybron Chemicals, Biochemical Division. Bi-Chem® Selectively adapted bacterial cultures for wastewater treatment by Sybron Chemicals, Inc. BIF See “boilers and industrial furnaces (BIF).” BIF® Product group of BIF. biflow filter Granular media filter characterized by water flow from both top and bottom to a collector located in the center of the filter bed. Big Dipper® Grease removal unit by Thermaco, Inc. bilharzia Waterborne disease also known as “schistosomiasis.” binary fission Asexual reproduction in some microbes where the parent organism splits into two independent organisms. Bio Disk-10 Biological deodorizer by Neutraman, Inc. Bio Dredge A lagoon sludge oxidation process by Unisol. Bio Genesis™ Microbial formulation to reduce wastewater odors by Bio Huma Netics, Inc. Bio Gro Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies, Inc. Bio Jet-7 Organic solution of seven strains of live, non-toxic bacteria by Jet, Inc. Bio Max™ Floating piping system by Environmental Dynamics Inc. Bio*Fix® Alkaline stabilization process for biosolids by Wheelabrator Water Technologies, Inc. Bio*Lime® Agricultural liming agent by Wheelabrator Water Technologies, Inc. Bio/Scent™ Liquid odor neutralizer by Hinsilblon Laboratories. BioAccelerator™ Groundwater treatment unit by Biotrol. bioaccumulants Substances that increase in concentration in living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted. See also “biological magnification.” bioaccumulation The process by which living organisms absorb and retain chemicals or elements from their environment, especially from their food. bioaccumulative A characteristic of a chemical whose rate of intake into a living organism is greater than its rate of excretion or metabolism. bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCC) Chemicals including mercury, dioxin, chlordane, DDT, and PCBs which accumulate in the environment and represent potential risks to human health, aquatic life, and wildlife. Bio-Activation Combination activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment system by Amwell, Inc. bioassay An analytical method that uses living organisms to measure the effect of a substance, factor, or condition on the environment. bioaugmentation A method of cleaning up pollution by inoculating a site with specific contaminant-targeted microbes in high density.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Biobed Wastewater treatment plant by Biothane Corp. biobrick A kiln-dried building brick with an organic component provided by municipal wastewater solids. BioCam Wastewater treatment system utilizing conditioned anaerobic methanogens by Parkson Corp. Biocarb™ Activated carbon by USFilter/Westates. Biocarbone® Biological wastewater treatment process using immersed fixed bed filter by USFilter/Krüger. Biocel Modular biofiltration system for VOC reduction by Envirogen. biochemical oxidation Oxidative reactions brought about by biological activity which result in chemical combination of oxygen with organic matter. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) A standard measure of wastewater strength that quantifies the oxygen consumed in a stated period of time; usually 5 days and at 20°C. Biocidal™ Sodium hypochlorite system by Scienco/FAST Systems. biocide A chemical used to inhibit or control the population of troublesome microbes. Bio-Clarifier Secondary clarifier with rotating sludge scoop for use with package rotating biological contactor by USFilter/Envirex. Bioclean Reverse osmosis membrane cleaner by BetzDearborn-Argo District. Bioclere™ Packaged wastewater treatment plants by Ekofinn Bioclere. bioconcentration The net increase in concentration of a substance in plants and animals above what is found in the natural surroundings. bioconcentration factor (BCF) The accumulation of chemicals that live in contaminated environments equal to the quotient of the concentration of a substance in aquatic organisms divided by the concentration in the water during the same time period. Biocontact® Biological aerated filter by Ekokan. biocontactor A unit process such as an aeration basin, trickling filter, RBC, or digester where microbes degrade/transform organic matter. bioconversion The conversion of organic waste products into an energy resource through the action of microbes. biocriteria Quantitative and narrative goals for the aquatic community used within water programs. Biocube™ Aerobic biofilter for airborne odors and VOCs by AMETEK Rotron Biofiltration. Bio-D® Bioremediation nutrients by Medina Products Bioremediation Division. biodegradable Term used to describe organic matter which can undergo biological decomposition. biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) The portion of TOC that is easily degraded by microbes. biodegradable organic matter (BOM) The portion of organic matter in water that can be degraded by microbes. BIOdek® Synthetic media for fixed film wastewater treatment reactors by Brentwood Industries, Inc. BioDen™ Anaerobic biological nitrate removal process by Nitrate Removal Technologies, LLC.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

BioDenipho® Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process by USFilter/Krüger. Biodenit® Biological denitrification process using immersed fixed bed filter by USFilter/Krüger. Bio-Denitro® Biological nitrogen removal process by USFilter/Krüger. biodiversity An environment where multiple organisms coexist. BioDoc® Rotary distributor for trickling filters by WesTech Engineering Inc. Bio-Drum Rotating drum containing biological filter media for wastewater treatment by JDV Equipment Corp. Bio-Energizer Lagoon sludge oxidation system by Probiotic Solutions. biofeasibility A bioremediation feasibility study done to determine the applicability and potential success of a bioremediation technique or procedure for a given site. biofilm An accumulation of microbial growth. BiofiltAIR™ Biological air filter by Biorem Technologies, Inc. biofilter See “biological filter.” BioFlex® Moving aeration chains for wastewater treatment systems by Parkson Corp. Bioflush Trash rake by E. Beaudrey & Co. Biofor™ Biological fixed film wastewater treatment system by Infilco Degremont, Inc. biofoul Presence and growth of organic matter in a water system. BioFuser® Oxygen transfer and mixing units for wastewater treatment systems by Parkson Corp. biogas The gases produced by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. biogenesis The theory that living organisms arise only from other living organisms. Bioglas Rigid, open cell foam silica biological oxidation media by the former Bioglas Corp. Bioglas Alpha Package fixed film wastewater treatment plant by the former Bioglas Corp. Biograte Floor grating by Brentwood Industries, Inc. BioGuard ACS™ Biofouling inhibitor for reverse osmosis systems by Professional Water Technologies, Inc. BioGuard® Influent cleaning system by Parkson Corp. BioGuide® Process monitoring and control technology by BioChem Technology, Inc. Bioken Former name of Filter Products. biokinetics The branch of science that pertains to the study of living organisms. Biolac® Extended aeration waste treatment process by Parkson Corp. Biolift™ Waste activated sludge thickening system by Baker Process. Biologic™ Nutrient supplement for wastewater treatment facilities by SciCorp Systems, Inc. biological exposure indexes (BEI) Guidelines used for assessing the hazard posed to healthy workers by chemical substances present in the body. biological filter A bed of sand, stone, or other media through which wastewater flows that depends on biological action for its effectiveness.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

biological magnification Refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals, or humans. biological process The process by which the metabolic activities of bacteria and other microorganisms break down complex organic materials into simple, more stable substances. biological treatment A treatment technology that uses bacteria to consume organic waste. biologically active filter (BAF) A granular media filter, usually employing activated carbon or anthracite which relies on the growth of a biofilm to aid in the degradation of organic matter and/or ammonia. Bio-Lysis® Sludge reduction process by Kady International. biomass The mass of biological material contained in a system. biome A biological community or ecosystem characterized by a specific habitat and climate such as a tropical rain forest or a desert. biomedical waste Waste derived from the operation of hospital, laboratory, and health care facilities. Biomizer™ Continuously sequencing reactor process by Environmental Dynamics Inc. Bio-Module Package wastewater treatment plant using rotating biological contactors by USFilter/Envirex. BioMonitor™ Automated on-line BOD analyzer by Anatel Corp. biomonitoring The use of living organisms to test water quality at a discharge site or further downstream. Bio-Net® Rotating biological contactor by NSW Corp. BIONOx™ Submersible aerator/mixer by ABS Pumps, Inc. Bionutre Nutrient removal process by USFilter/Envirex. Bio-Nutri™ Nitrogen and phosphorus removal process by Smith & Loveless, Inc. Bio-Ox™ Bioreactor for biological treatment of wastewater by SRE, Inc. bio-oxidation See “biochemical oxidation.” Bio-Pac Package trickling filter formerly offered by USFilter/Envirex. Bio-Pac SF#30 Trickling filter media by NSW Corp. Biopaq ® Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process used for treatment of highstrength wastes by CBI Walker, Inc., (U.S. licensee), Biwater (U.K. licensee), and Paques B.V. (licensor). BioPasteur® Biosolids pasteurization system by USFilter/Krüger. biopile A remediation technique that involves the mounding of contaminated soil in a lined and covered pile with air and amendments circulating via pumping. Bio-Pure Water reclamation treatment plant by AquaClear Technologies Corp. biopure water Water that is sterile, pyrogen free and has a total solids content of less than 1 mg/L. Biopuric Technology to remove hydrogen sulfide from anaerobic digester biogas by Biothane Corp. Bio-Reel™ Fixed film wastewater treatment system using coiled, corrugated tubing by Schreiber Corp.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

bioremediation The use of the natural ability of microbes to use waste materials in their metabolic processes and convert them into harmless endproducts. Bio-S® Bioremediation surfactant by Medina Products Bioremediation Division. Bioscan 2 Monitoring technology for microbial activity by BetzDearborn, Inc. Bioscrub™ Rotating biological contactor odor and VOC treatment system by CMS Group, Inc. Bioscrubbers™ Biological-based system for removal of odors by WRc Process Engineering. Biosep® Membrane water/wastewater treatment process by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. Bio-Separator Floating flow diversion baffle for lagoons by ThermaFab, Inc. bioslurping An in situ remediation technique that involves extraction of both vapor and liquid from the subsurface, also known as “dual-phase extraction.” Bio-Sock Fabric sock used to introduce bacterial cultures into a flow by Sybron Chemicals, Inc. Biosock™ Biological culture application system by Sybron Chemicals, Inc. biosolids Solid organic matter recovered from municipal wastewater treatment that can be beneficially used, especially as a fertilizer. “Biosolids” are solids that have been stabilized within the treatment process, whereas “sludge” has not. biosorption process See “contact stabilization process.” Bio-Source™ Biocide by Avista Technologies. biosparging A groundwater remediation technology where compressed air is injected into a contaminated aquifer. biosphere The mass of living organisms found in a thin belt at the earth’s surface. BioSpiral Rotating biological contactor formerly offered by Walker Process Equipment. Biostart™ Liquid microbial concentrate by Advanced Microbial Systems, Inc. biostat A substance that inhibits biological growth without destroying the biomass. biostimulation A method of cleaning up pollution using indigenous microbes at a contaminated site and providing only fertilizers, nutrients, or special chemical compounds that speed the growth of the indigenous microbial population. Biostyr® Upflow mixed media reactor process for removal of nitrogen and suspended solids by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. Biostyrene® Floating filter media by USFilter/Krüger (North America) and OTV. Bio-Surf Rotating biological contactor process by USFilter/Envirex. biota All living organisms within a system. Biotac™ Bioremediation system that delivers bacteria to wet wells by USFilter/Davis Process. biotechnology Techniques that use living organisms or parts of organisms to produce a variety of products to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms to remove toxics from bodies of water, or act as pesticides. Biothane® Anaerobic wastewater treatment process by Biothane Corp. Bio-Tite® Biofiltration odor control system by Thermacon Enviro Systems, Inc. Bioton® Biological VOC and odor control system by Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems, Inc. biotower See “biological filter.”

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Biotox® Regenerative thermal oxidation process by Biothermica International, Inc. biotransformation Conversion of a substance into other compounds by organisms; includes biodegradation. biotrickling filter Odor treatment system where air is scrubbed with recirculating liquid flowing over high-porosity packing materials covered with a thin film of sulfur-oxidizing microbes. bioturbation The net effect of the activity of benthic organisms at wastewater treatment plant discharges which may aid in the dispersion of contaminants and increase the exchange of oxygen and nutrients between the sediment and water. bioventing An in situ groundwater remediation technology where air is introduced into unsaturated soil to facilitate biodegradation of organic contaminants. BioWeb™ Synthetic media providing a growth site for wastewater biomass by USFilter/Davco. Biox™ Package water treatment plant by Bioscience, Inc. Bioxide® Sewage odor control product by USFilter/Davis Process. Bioxide-AQ™ Odor and corrosion control product by USFilter/Davis Process. BIPM International Bureau of Weights and Measures. bipolar membrane A membrane composed of two distinct layers of oppositely charged materials. bipolar membrane electrodialysis See “water splitting.” Bird Machine Sludge dewatering equipment product line of Baker Process. Birm® Granular filter media for removal of iron and manganese by Clack Corp. bittern The bitter liquid remaining after the crystallization of salt from a brine. See also “mother liquor.” Bitumastic® Coal tar coating products by Carboline Co. bituminous coal A coal high in carbonaceous matter that yields a considerable amount of volatile waste matter when burned. Blace Filter A precoat filter system by Blace Filtronics, Inc. Black Clawson Former name of Thermal Black Clawson. black liquor Strong organic waste generated during kraft pulping process. black lung disease Common name for the lung disease “anthracosis” caused by prolonged inhalation of coal dust, which results in fibrosis, or scarring of lung tissue. black sand Discoloration of filter sand resulting from manganese deposits. black water (1) A condition in drinking water that results from the presence of excess oxidized manganese. (2) Water that contains animal, human, or food waste. blank A quality control sample representing a matrix and containing all the constituents except the analyte. blanketing gas Nitrogen or other inert gas used in a “gas blanket.” blast furnace Furnace used in iron-making process in which hot blast air flows upward through the raw materials and exits at the furnace top. Blastocystis An intestinal protozoan parasite transmitted by contaminate food or water. Blaw-Knox Former name of Buffalo Technologies, Inc.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

bleach An oxidizing compound usually containing chlorine combined with calcium or sodium. bleed To draw accumulated liquid or gas from a line or container. Blendmaster Sludge mixer by McLanahan Corp. Blendrex™ Motionless mixer by LCI Corp. blind flange A flanged plate or blind used to close the end of a pipeline. blinding The reduction or cessation of flow through a filter resulting from solids restricting the filter openings. Blizzard Adsorption System Polymeric adsorbent technology for VOC abatement by On-Demand Environmental Systems, Inc. BLM U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management. Block & Hong process Biological phosphorus removal process by USFilter/Krüger. blood worm The larval stage of the midge fly. bloodborne pathogen Pathogenic microbes present in human blood and other potentially infectious materials which can cause disease in humans. bloom See “algal bloom.” blowback Filtrate blown out through the filter medium on a rotary vacuum filter by the air introduced to move the filter cake away from the cloth. blowdown A controlled discharge from a recirculating system designed to prevent a buildup of some material. blower Air conveying equipment that generates pressures up to 103 kPa (15 psi) commonly used for wastewater aeration systems. BLS™ Sludge reduction process by Kady International. blue baby syndrome See “methemoglobinemia.” blue vitriol Common name for copper sulfate used to control algae. blue-green algae A group of aquatic organisms having a blue pigment in addition to a green-colored colorophyll, and often the cause of nuisance conditions in water bodies. BLWRS See “barriered landscape water renovation system (BLWRS).” BMP See “best management practice (BMP).” BMR Baseline monitoring report. BNR Biological nutrient removal. Boa-Boom Oil spill containment booms by Environetics, Inc. Boat® Boat-shaped intrachannel clarifier by United Industries, Inc. BOD See “biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).” BOD5 Five-day carbonaceous or nitrification-inhibited BOD. See also “biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).” BOD-Seed™ Seed microbes for BOD testing by Sybron Chemicals, Inc. BODu See “ultimate BOD (BODU).” body burden The total radiation or toxic material present in the body at a point in time. body feed Coating material added to the influent of precoat filters during filtration cycle. bog Poorly drained land filled with decayed organic matter that is wet and spongy and unable to support an appreciable weight.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

BogenFilter™ Belt filter press by Klein America, Inc. boil out An evaporator cleaning process where wash water is boiled in an evaporator to remove scale deposits. boiler A vessel in which water is continually vaporized into steam by the application of heat. boiler feedwater Water which, in the best practice, is softened and/or demineralized, heated to nearly boiler temperature, and deaerated before being pumped into a steam boiler. Boilermate® Packed column deaerator by Cleaver-Brooks. boilers and industrial furnaces (BIF) A category of thermal treatment operations, also including cement and aggregate kilns, asphalt, and smelting furnaces, whose combustion processes and air emissions are regulated. boiling point The temperature at which a liquid’s vapor pressure equals the pressure acting on the liquid. boiling point elevation (BPE) The difference between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of pure water at the same pressure. BOM See “biodegradable organic matter (BOM)” and “background organic matter (BOM).” bomb calorimeter An instrument used to determine the heat content of sludge or other material. bone char A carbon-based adsorbent made by carbonizing animal bones. BonoZon Ozone generator by ProMinent Fluid Controls, Inc. BOO Build, own, operate. BOOM Build-own-operate-maintain. boom A floating barrier used to contain oil on a body of water. booster pump A pump used to raise the pressure of the fluid on its discharge side. BOOT Build-own-operate-transfer. Boothwall™ Dust collector cartridge filters by Dustex Corp. BoR U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Also called “BuRec.” bore hole A man-made hole in a geological formation. Bosker™ Trash rack cleaner by Brackett Green. BOT Build, operate, transfer. botanical pesticide A pesticide whose active ingredient is a plant-produced chemical such as nicotine or strychnine. bottom ash The noncombustible particles that fall to the bottom of a boiler furnace. bottoming cycle Cogeneration system where thermal heat is produced by the process and by-product electricity is then generated. botulism A severe form of food poisoning usually associated with development of a toxin produced by bacteria such as bacillus in improperly preserved or prepared food. bound water Water held on the surface or interior of colloidal particles. Bouyoucos A laboratory test procedure employing hydrometers to determine the fine particle size distribution in a slurry. Bowser-Briggs Former manufacturer of oil/water separation equipment. Boyle’s Law The volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure at constant temperature.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Boythorp Glass coated steel tanks by Klargestor. BPE See “boiling point elevation (BPE).” BPEO Best practical environmental option. BPR (1) Biological phosphorous removal. (2) Boiling point rise. Brackett Green Former name of Brackett Geiger. brackish water Water containing low concentration of soluble salts, usually between 1000 and 10,000 mg/L. branch sewer A sewer that receives wastewater from a small area and discharges into a main sewer serving more than one area. Brandol® Cylindrical fine bubble diffusers by USFilter/Schumacher Filters. brass A copper alloy containing up to 40% zinc. braze To thermally bond metallic parts with a cuprous alloy. break tank A storage tank at atmospheric pressure from which feed water is drawn prior to further treatment or use. breakpoint chlorination Addition of chlorine to a water or wastewater until the chlorine demand has been satisfied. Further addition will result in a chlorine residual so that disinfection can be assured. breakthrough That point in the granular media filter cycle when the filtrate turbidity begins to increase because the filter bed is full and no longer able to retain solids. breakwater An offshore barrier, often connected to shore, which breaks the force of waves and provides shelter from wave action. Breeze™ Compact air stripping unit by Aeromix Systems, Inc. BRI See “building-related illness (BRI).” brine Water saturated with, or containing a high concentration of, salts, usually in excess of 36,000 mg/L. brine concentrator Term used to describe a vertical tube falling film evaporator employing special scale control techniques to maximize concentration of dissolved solids. brine heater The heat input section of a multistage flash evaporator where feedwater is heated to the process’ top temperature. brine mud Waste material, often associated with well-drilling or mining, composed of mineral salts or other inorganic compounds. brine staging See “reject staging.” British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1°F. Brix scale A scale used in a hydrometer for measuring the concentration or density of sugar in solution. broadcast application The spreading of pesticides over an entire area. broad-crested weir A weir having a substantial crest width in the direction parallel to the direction of water flowing over it. broke Paper waste generated prior to completion of the papermaking process. bromate The highest oxidation state of the bromide ion which can be formed during the ozonation of waters containing bromide. BromiCide® Microbiocide by BioLab Water Additives.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

bromide An inorganic ion found in surface water and groundwater that, when oxidized by chlorine or ozone, can result in the formation of bromide-substituted disinfection byproducts. bromine A halogen element used as a water disinfectant in combination with chlorine as a chlorine-bromide mixture. Chemical symbol is Br. bronze A copper-tin alloy, or any other copper alloy, that does not contain zinc or nickel as the principal alloying element. brown coal A common term for lignite. brownfield An inactive site or property being put back into productive economic use after the relevant environmental agencies agree contaminants present at the property no longer pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment. Brownian motion Erratic movement of colloidal particles that results from the impact of molecules and ions dissolved in the solution. Brownie Buster Organic solids agitator/separator by Enviro-Care Co. Bruner Product line by Culligan International. Bruner-Matic® Water treatment control center by Culligan International Corp. brush aerator Mechanical aeration device most frequently used in oxidation ditch wastewater treatment plants, consisting of a horizontal shaft with protruding paddles, that is rapidly rotated at the water surface. Also called a “rotor.” BS&W Bottom sediments and water. BTEX Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Btu See “British Thermal Unit (Btu).” BTU-Plus® Filter media that incinerates to inert ash by Alar Engineering Corp. BTX Benzene, toluene, and xylene. bubble point The pressure at which air first passes through a wet membrane; the path being the channel of greatest pore size. bubbler system Common terminology for pneumatic-type differential level controller. bubonic plague An acute infectious disease usually transmitted from infected animals to humans by the bite of a rat flea. buchner funnel A laboratory funnel with a perforated bottom that utilizes a disposable filter paper to evaluate wastewater and sludge dewaterability. bucket elevator A conveying device consisting of a head and foot assembly that supports and drives an endless chain or belt to which buckets are attached. Budd Nonmetallic chain product line by Polychem Corp. buffer A substance that stabilizes the pH value of solutions. buffer strips Strips of grass or other erosion-resisting vegetation between or below cultivated strips or fields. buffered The ability to resist changes in pH. buffering capacity The capacity of a solution to resist a change in composition, especially changes in pH. Buflovak® Evaporator and crystallizer product line by Buffalo Technologies, Inc. building-related illness (BRI) Condition in which at least 20% of a building’s occupants display symptoms of illness for more than 2 weeks and the cause of the illness can be traced to a specific building source.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

bulk density The density/volume ratio for a solid including the voids contained in the bulk material. bulkhead A partition of wood, rock, concrete, or steel used for protection from water, or to segregate sections of tanks or vessels. bulking sludge A poorly settling activated sludge that results from the predominance of filamentous organisms. bulky waste Large items of waste materials, such as appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, stumps. Bullseye™ Wastewater nutrient removal process by United Industries, Inc. buoyancy The tendency of a body to rise or float in a liquid. BuRec U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Also called “BoR.” burette A glass tube with fine gradations and bottom stopcock used to accurately measure and dispense fluids. burning agents Additives that improve the combustibility of the materials to which they are applied. burning rate The rate at which solid waste is incinerated or heat is released during incineration. burnishing A surface finishing process in which surface irregularities are displaced rather than removed. bushing (1) A short threaded tube which screws into a pipe fitting to reduce its size. (2) The bearing surface for pin rotation when a chain revolves around a sprocket. butterfly valve A valve equipped with a stem-operated disk that is rotated parallel to the liquid flow when opened and perpendicular to the flow when closed. BV See “bed volume (BV).” BVF® Anaerobic wastewater treatment system by ADI Systems, Inc. BWI British Drinking Water Inspectorate. BWR See “basic water requirement (BWR).” BWRO Brackish water reverse osmosis. bypass A channel or pipe arranged to divert flow around a tank, treatment process, or control device. byproduct A material or substance that is not a primary product of a process and is not separately produced.

C
C See “Celsius (C).” C. parvum See “Cryptosporidium.” C × T The product of the “residual disinfection concentration” (C) in mg/L determined before or at the first customer, and the corresponding “disinfectant contact time” (T) in minutes. Also called “CT value.” C × T99.9 The CT value required for 99.9% inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. c/c Center-to-center.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

CA See “cellulose acetate (CA).” CA membrane Cellulose acetate membrane. CA•RE™ Spent cartridge filter recovery program by USFilter Corp. CAA See “Clean Air Act (CAA).” CAAA See “Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA).” CableTorq Circular thickener with automatic torque load response system by GL&V/Dorr-Oliver, Inc. CaCO3 See “calcium carbonate.” CAD Computer-aided design. cadmium (Cd) A heavy metal element that accumulates in the environment. CADRE® VOC destruction process by Vara International. CAF® Cavitation air flotation units by HydroCal, Inc. CAFE See “Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard (CAFE).” CAFOs Concentrated animal feeding operations. Cairox® Potassium permanganate by Carus Chemical Co., Inc. Cairox ZM® Zebra mussel control technology by Carus Chemical Co., Inc. caisson Watertight structure used for underwater work. cake Dewatered sludge with a solids concentration sufficient to allow handling as a solid material. cake filtration Filtration classification for filters where solids are removed on the entering face of the granular media. CakePress Modular high pressure section of dewatering press by Parkson Corp. Cal Large calorie. See “calorie.” cal Small calorie. See “calorie.” calandria The heating element in an evaporator consisting of vertical tubes which act as the heating surface. calcareous Composed of, or containing, calcium compounds, particularly calcium carbonate. calcify To become stone-like or chalky due to deposition of calcium salts. calcine Ore, carbonate, mineral, or concentrate that has been roasted in an oxidizing atmosphere to remove sulfur or carbon dioxide. calcined lime See “quicklime.” calciner A device in which the moisture and organic matter in phosphate rock is reduced in a combustion chamber. calcining Exposure of an inorganic compound to a high temperature to alter its form and drive off a substance that was originally part of the compound. Calciquest Liquid polyphosphate by Calciquest, Inc. calcium carbonate A white, chalky substance which is the principal hardness and scale-causing compound in water. Chemical formula is CaCO3. calcium carbonate equivalent (mg/L as CaCO3) A convenient unit of exchange for expressing all ions in water by comparing them to calcium carbonate which has a molecular weight of 100 and an equivalent weight of 50; signifies that the concentration of a dissolved mineral is chemically ...

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Keywords

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71 71106 712 7120 713 71378 714 715 716 7160 717 718 7201 724 72401 7260 727 72714 72765 73 730 732 73399 734 735 7352 7368 737 740 74023 74048 74121 74158 745.7 7496 75 750 75009 75018 75064 7521 755 757 75710 75901 76 760 7600 76011 76017 761 76131 76151 7617 76302 765 76801 770 77003 77008 77018 77020 77024 77034 77039 77040 77041 77043 77053 77058 77060 77064 77073 77080 77084 77098 77222 77234 77253 77269 77303 77305 77401 77477 77478 775 77539 77573 78 781 785 78680 78728 78746 78754 78861 790 792 7927 79998 7ad 7bh 7h2o 7q10 8 80 800 8000 80014 80020 80022 80030 801 802 80201 80211 80216 803 80301 804 8040 80401 805 80539 8069 8070 808 81 810 8100 813 814 8141 815 816 817 818 820 8205 82073 82531 827 828 830 831 835 8362 840 84015 84090 84101 84110 84115 84127 84165 843 84321 8448 845 847 8499 850 85027 8506 85226 85251 85283 855 8558 856 8560 85743 858 859 860 8600 8601 861 863 864 866 870 8700 87109 8715 877 879 88005 8855 888 89109 8949 89510 89706 898 9 9.8 90 900 9000 90022 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arna aro aroma aromat around arrang arrasmith array arro arro-car arro-clean arrow arrowhead arroyo arsenic art artco arteri artesian arthropod arthur articl artisan artifici arus as-built asa asahi asano asb asbesto asbestos-contain asbestosi asc ascend asdor asdwa asept asexu ash ashair ashbi ashbrook ashbrook-simon-hartley asheboro ashevill ashland ashra ashton ashfix asia asiat asm aspergillus asphalt asphalt-rubb asphyxi aspi aspi-jet aspir asqc asr assay assembl assess assign assimil assist associ assum assur ast astatin astm astraco astrasand astrasepar astring asymmetr asymmetrix at ata atad atara atd atho ati atl atlant atlanta atlas atlas-stord atm atmomet atmospher atochem atol atom atomer ator atp atsdr attach attack attain attempt attenu attract attribut attwood au auburn auckland audibl audit auger augment augustin aurora austel austenit austgen austgen-biojet austin authent author auto auto-clean auto-cleans auto-dox auto-jet auto-oxid auto-puls auto-rak auto-retreat auto-shel auto-shok auto-skimm auto-vac auto5 autobelt autochthon autoclav autocon autogen autoignit autojust autom automat automobil autopress autoreact autosdi autotherm autotravel autotrol autotroph autoxid auxiliari avail ave aventura averag averi avers avgf avista avogadro aw awar away awi awt awwa awwarf axi axial axsia aynho az azenit azeotrop aztec azur afi b b-gon b-horizon b.f b.v b2a babcock babi bac bacilli bacillus back back-rak back-swept background backpuls backsiphonag backward backwash backyard backfill backflow bacm bact bacteri bacteria bacteriostat bacterium badger badt baf baffl baffleflow bag bagass baghous bailer bailey bailey-fisch baker bakersfield bakflo bala balanc bale baler balefil balk ball ballardval ballast ballist balltown baltic baltimor bamag ban banana banana-blad banburi band bandit bandscreen bank bar barb bardenpho barg barminutor barn barnacl barnebey barnstabl baromet barometr barranca barrel barri barrier barrington bart bartlett bartlett-snow bartow basal base baselin basf basi basic basin basket basophil bat batavia batch batch-mast batch-mis batch-o-mat batch-typ batea bath bathyal batneec baton batt batteri battl bauer baumé bauxit bayer bbl bc bca bcc bcf bcl bcpct bct bdat bdct bdoc bdt be beach beachwel bead beaird beam bear beaudrey beaufort beaver beaverton becom bed bedford bedminst bedrock bee beechmont beet began beggiatoa begin behav behavior behind bei bej beko bekomat bekosplit bekox belclen belcor belgard belief believ belit bell bell-shap bella bellacid bellair bellevu bellmer bellozon belmont beloit beloit-passav belong below-ground-reinforc belsper belt ben bench bend beneath benefici benefit bensalem benthal benthic bentho bentolin bentomat benton bentonit benzen benfield bepex berch berk berlin berm bermuda bernado bernoulli beryllium best beta bethlehem better betz betzdearborn betzdearborn-argo betzdearbornargo beverag bevmax beyond bfi bfr bg bg-wsa bgs2 bhn bhp bi bi-chem bibbigard bibo bicarbon bif big bilharzia bill billionth bin binari bind binder bio bio- bio-activ bio-clarifi bio-d bio-denitro bio-drum bio-energ bio-ga bio-lysi bio-modul bio-net bio-nutri bio-ox bio-oxid bio-pac bio-pur bio-recoveri bio-reel bio-separ bio-sock bio-sourc bio-surf bio-tit bio-filtrat bio/scent bioacceler bioaccumul bioassay bioaugment biob biobrick biocam biocarb biocarbon biocel biochem biochemist biocid bioclean biocler bioconcentr biocontact biocontactor bioconvers biocriteria biocub biodegrad biodek bioden biodenipho biodenit biodivers biodoc biofeas bioflex biofor biofoul biofus bioga biogenesi biogla biograt bioguard bioguid biojet bioken biokinet biolab biolac biolift biolog biological-bas biolfilter biom biomass biomed biomiz biomonitor bionox bionutr biopaq biopasteur biopil bioprim biopur bioreactor biorem bioremedi bioscan bioscienc bioscrub bioscrubb biosep bioslurp biosock biosolid biosorpt biosparg biospher biospir biostart biostat biostimul biostyr biostyren biosystem biota biotac biotechn biotechnolog biotek biotest biothan biothermica bioton biotow biotox biotransform biotreat biotrickl biotrol bioturb biotyp biovent bioway bioweb biox bioxid bioxide-aq biofilm biofiltair biofilter biofiltrat bioflush bipm bipolar bird birm birmingham birth birthrat bismark bisulfit bit bite bitter bittern bitumast bitumin biwat biflow blace black bladder blade blank blanket blast blastocysti blaw blaw-knox blaze bldg bleach bleed blend blendmast blendrex blind blizzard blm block blood bloodborn bloodstream bloom bloomer blow blow-off blowback blowdown blower blown bls blue blue-green blue-whit bluemound bluff blvd blwrs bmp bmr bnr boa boa-boom board board-form boat boat-shap boc boca bod bod-se bod5 bodi bodu bog bogenfilt boil boiler boilerm boliden bolt bom bomb bond bone bonnevill bonozon boo book boom boon boonton booster boot boothwal bor border bore borehol born bosch bosker bosstick bosun bot botan botec bottl bottom botul botulinum bou boulder boulevard bound boundari bouyouco bowel bowl bowman bowser bowser-brigg box boy boyl boythorp bpe bpeo bpr br brackett brackish bradley brake bram brampton bran branch brand brandol brandt brantford brass braze break breakdown breaker breakpoint breakthrough breakwat breath brecksvill breez brentwood bri briarcliff brick brickwork bridg bridge-mount bridgeport brief brigg brighton brightseat brine brinecel bristol british brix broad broad-crest broadcast broadway brochur brodhead broke broken bromat bromicid bromid bromide-substitut bromin bromine-contain bromochloroacet bronz brook brooklyn brookfield broomfield broth brought brown browni brownian browning-ferri brownwood brownfield brunel bruner bruner-mat brunt brush brush/water bryn bs btex btg btu btu-plus btx bubbl bubble-solid bubbler bubon buchner buck bucket budapest budd buena buerkl buffalo buffer buffington bug build build-own-operate-maintain build-own-operate-transf building-rel buildup built built-in-plac bulb bulk bulkhead bulki bullsey bundl buoy buoyanc buoyant burbank burden bureau burec burett buri burn burnabi burner burnett burning/open burnish burnsvill burton busch buse bush busi buster butadien butcher butler butterfli butyl butzbach buyer buflovak bv bvf bwi bwr bwro by-product bypass byproduct c c-horizon c/100 c/c c/el c04 c10h8 c11h20o c12h22o c2h5oh c6h4 c6h6 c6h8o7 ca caa caaa cabl cabletorq cabot caco3 cad cadmium cadr caf cafe caffein cafo cage cairox caisson cajon cake cakepress cal calandria calcar calcifi calcin calciquest calcium calcific calcul caldwel calendar calf calgari calgon calibr california call callaway calm calori calorimet calver calvert cam cama camden cameron camg camino camp campbel campground campylobact canaan canada canadian canal cancer candela candi candid candl cane canist canneri cannon cannonball2 cannot cansorb cant canton caoh2 cap capa capabl capac capacit cape capillar capillari capit capita capitol capitox capozon caprolacton capsul capsular captiv captor captur car carb carbal carbam carbid carbo carbo-cor carbolin carbolux carbon carbon-bas carbon-dioxid carbonac carbonit carborundum carboxyl carboy carbofilt carcass carcinogen carcinogenesi card cardboard cardin care cari carl carlsbad carmenita carmichael carnegi carnivor carol carondelet carri carriag carrier carrob carrousel carryov carson carter cartermix cartridg cartridge-typ carulit carus carver carver-greenfield casac cascad case cash cask caso4 caso4-2h20 cass cassadi cast cast-in-plac castkleen cat cat-ox catalog cataloging-in-publ catalyst catalyt catastroph catch catcher catchment categor categori catenari cathart cathod cation caton cattail cattl caus causeway caustic caution cavendish cavern cavit caviti cbg cbi cbod cc ccb ccc cce ccoh ccpp ccs2000 cd cdc cdi cdt ce ce-bauer cecarbon cecasorb cedar cedex cedi cel celatom celdek celgard celina celit cell cell-less cellular cellulos cellulosic-typ celsius cem cema cemcat cement censi centaur center center-slung center-to-cent centigrad centimet centipos centr centra centra-flo centrac central centrat centri centri-clean centrico centridri centrifield centrifug centripress centrisi centrol centrox ceq cerabar ceram ceramicå ceraflo cercla cereal cerm certain certifi certific cesium cessat cesspool cetco cetcofloc cf200 cfb cfc cfcs cfr cfs cfstr cfu cgmp ch ch2 ch2o ch3 ch3cho ch3coch3 ch3cooh ch3oh ch4 chabelco chad chagrin chain chain-mount chainbelt chainsav chalfont chalki challeng chalmer chamber champ chanc chandler chang changer channel channelair char charact character characterist charcoal charg chargepac charl charleston charlott charter chase chcl3 check chek chelat chem chem-clean chem-fe chem-fin chem-flex chem-gard chem-scal chem-tow chemet chemi chemic chemidisk chemin cheminjector cheminjector-d chemisorpt chemix chemnet chemoclin chemomat chemostat chemosteril chemotroph chemscan chemsensor chemspec chemterc chemtrac chemtub chemunex chernobyl cherri cherrington chesapeak chesir chester chesterfield chestnut chevron chi chi-x chicago chican chief chiefli children chill chillicoth chimney chip chlor chlor-a-vac chlor-scal chloramin chlordan chlorgen chlorid chlorin chlorine-bromid chlorine/oxidant chlorit chlormast chloro chloro-cat chloroform chloroform-solubl chlorohydr chloromat chloropac chlorophenoxi chlorosi chlorosulphon chlorous chlorofluorocarbon chlortrol cho cholera cholinesteras chop chopper christensen chromat chromatograph chromatographi chromatography/mass chromav chrome chromium chronic chuo chuo-ku church ci ciba cica cicero cide cide-trak cienega cincinnati cinder cip cipolletti circ circl circox circuit circul circulair circular circulin circumf circumst cistern cite citi citric citrus civil ciwem cix cl cl2 clack claim clair clam clar clar-i-v clar-o-floc clar-vac clara claraetor clarat clari clari-float clari-trac clari-vac claribloc claricon clarifloc clariflow clarigest clarion claripak clarisep clarishear clarithicken clariti clarifi clarific clariflo clarifloccul clark clarkson class classic classifi classific clathrat claud claus clawson clay clay-lik claysorb clayton clean clean-a-mat clean-in-plac cleaner cleans cleansimat cleantec cleanup clear clear-flo clear-flow clearbrook clearcon clearig clearinghous clearwat clearwel clearfield clearflo cleaver cleaver-brook clement cleveland cliff climat climatologist climber climberack cling clinic clinker clino clinoptilolit clinton clip clo clo2 clog cloromat clortec close close-coupl closet clostridium closur cloth cloth-cov cloud cloud-lik cloudi clover clovi clow clp clr cluster cm cm/s2 cma cmf cmf-s cmi cmi-schneibl cmp cms cn co co-fir co2 co3 coagblend coagul coagulation-floccul coal coalesc coalescer-typ coanda coars coarser coastal coastlin coat coatesvill cobb coc cocain cocci cochran cod codcr code codelin codispos codmn coefficient coex coexist cofferdam cog cogbridg cogen cogener coh cohort coil coilfilter coke coke-fil colchest cold cole coleman coli coliblue24 coliform colilert coliphag coliseum colisur collaps colleagu collect collectair collector collis collodi colloid colloidair colloqui colmar colmatag colombia coloni colonnad color color-katch colorimet colorimetr colorless colorophyl colox columbia columbus column com comb combi combi-guard combin combo combu combu-chang combust combustor combustrol come comet comingl commerc commerci commingl comminut comminutor commiss committe commod common communic communiti compact compactor compani compapl compar comparison compart compartment compass compens compet competit complet completair completr complex compli complianc complic compmast compon compos composit compost compost-a-mat compound comprehens compress compressor compromis comput computer computer-aid computer-bas concentr concept concern concis concord concret concurr concyr conden conden-sorb condens condense-a-hood condit condition conduct conduit cone cone-shap cone-typ conesep confeder confer confus congeal congenit congress conic conjunct connat connect connersvill conoscreen conro consecut conseil consent consequ conserv conservatek consid consider consist consolid constant constant-r constitu constitut constrict construct consult consum consumpt cont cont-flo contac contac-pac contaclarifi contact contact-aer contactor contain contamin contaminant-target contempl content context contin continent conting continu continuous-flo contol contour contra contra-shear contract contractor contrail contrari contraflo contraflux contreat contribut control convect conveni convent convers convert convertofus convey conveyor confidenc configur confin confirm confluenc confluent cooh cook cool coolant/oil cooler coor coordin cop copa copa-nil copaclarifi copasac copasock copatrawl copawash copawet cope copi coplastix copper copper-nickel copper-tin coppera coprecipit cor cor-pak coral core coreless corn corner cornwal corona corosex corp corpor correct correspond corrobor corros corrosion-resist corrpro corrug corten cortland corundum cosmos cost costa costar coster could council count counter counter-curr counteract countercurr countercurrent-activ counterflow counti countri countrysid coupl coupon cours courtney cover covertit covington cow cowan cpc cpi cpm cpo cpsc cpvc crack cradl cradle-to-grav cranberri crane crawford crawler crc creat credibl credit creek creeksid crenothrix crep crepaco crescent crest crevic crisa criss criteria critic cromaglass crompton crop cross cross-corrug cross-flo cross-sect cross/counte crosslink crosslinkag crossflow crossflow-typ crouzat crown crp crt cruce crucibl crude crumb crumbl crush crusher crust crust-lik crustacean crypto cryptosporidiosi cryptosporidium crystal crystalactor crystallin csa csf csi csm cso csp cspe css cstr ct ctg cu cubic cullar cullet cullex culligan cullsorb culm cultiv cultur culvert cumul cuno cup cupric cupro cupro-nickel cuprous curb cure curi currant current curri curtain curv cush cushion cuso4 custodi custom custom-activ cut cutan cutoff cutrin cutter cuver cvoc cvs cw cw-srf cwa cwas cws cwt cy cy-clo-grit cyanam cyanamid cyanazin cyanid cybreak cycl cycle-let cyclesorb cyclic cyclo cyclo-hearth cyclo-jet cyclo-treat cyclo/phram cycloclean cyclon cyclospora cyclospray cyclotherm cyclofloc cygnet cylind cylindr cynwyd cyrptosporidium cyst cystallin cytec cytotoxin czma d d-chlor d-part d.r d/dbp d/dbpr d/dpb d/t d100 d2 dac dacar daf daft dahlonega daicen daili dakota dale dalr dalton dam damag dampen damper danfoss/instrumark danger dangler dannemann danver daphn dar darbi darci darien dark darrow dartmouth das data databas datag dataram date daughter davco davi david davis-d2 davis-om day dayton db dba dbc dbo dboo dbp dbp0 dbpfp dbpp dbs dc dc21 dci dcp dcs ddt ddw de de-pac dead deaden deadleg deaerat deal dealkal deamin dean deash death debri decad decant decarbon decat decatur decay deceler dechlorin decibel decis deck declar declin declining-r decommiss decompos decomposit decontamin decor decre decreas dedert dedic deduct dee deep deepaer deepb deeper deer defect defend defens defoli deforest dega degasifi degrad degrade/transform degre degremont degritt dehydr dehydro deink deioniz dekalb dekspray del delano delav delawar delay delco deleteri deliber delin deliquesc delist deliv deliveri dell della delmont delpac delrin delt delta delta-pak delta-stak deltaflow deltapilot delump demand demin deminer demist demonstr demulsifing dendrim denit denitir denitri denitri-filt denitrific denitro denmark dens densadeg densat denser densiti density/volume densludg dental dentrol denver deodor deox deox/2000 deoxygen deoxyribonucl depart depend deper depict deplet deplut depolox deposit depress depth depur der deriv dermal derri derrick des desal desalco desalin desalt desand descend descent describ descript desert desert-lik desertific desicc design design-build-oper design-build-own-oper desilt desir desorpt destabil destin destratific destroy destruct destrux desulfur detail detect detector detent deterg deterior determin deton detoxific detriment detritor detritus deutsch develop development developur devic devin dew dewa dewat dewater dewplan dexsil dexter dey deficienc defin definit deflect deflectofus defloccul df dfr dft dgf dhahran dhc dhhs dhv di di-prim di-sep diagenex diagnos diagnosi diagnost dialysi diamet diamit diamond diaphragm diaphragm-met diarrhea diatom diatomac diatomit diazinon dibenzofuran dibromid dibromoacet dic dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethan dichrom dickinson dickman dictionari die diego dieldrin dielectr diemm diesel dieterich diethyl diethylstilbestrol differ differenti diffus diffusadom diffusair diffuser difficult digesdahl digest digester/thickener digi digi-flo digichem digit dijbo dike dilat diluent dilut dilution-to-threshold dimens dimension dimethyl dimethylbenzen dimit dimminutor din dinocap dinoseb dioxid dioxin dioxin-contain dioxytrol dip dipair diphonix diphosph dipper direct director directori directub dirt disagre disc disc-pak disc-tub disc-typ discard discern discfus discharg discolor discomfort discontinu discor discostrain discotherm discourag discreen discret discuss diseas disease-caus disease-produc dish disinfect disinfectant/disinfection disintegr disk disk-shap disord dispens dispers displac display dispo dispos dispos-a-filt disposorb disput disrepair disrupt disruptor dissimilar dissip dissoci dissolut dissolv dissolved-solid distanc distant distend distil distillation/concentration distinct distinguish distort distribut distributor district distruptor disturb disulfid disfigur ditch diurnal dival divers diversifi divert divid divinylbenzen divis divison dixi dk dlo dna dnapl dnf dnr doa dobritz doc doctor document dodg doe doi dojima dokw dolomit dom dome domest domin don-press donat done dontech door doravill dormant dorr dorr-oliv dorrclon dorrco dosag dose dose-respons dosfolat dosimet dot doubl double-pass double-suct doubleguard dougla dover dow dowex downcom downgradi downstream downward downflow dows dox doyl dp dpd dpd-fas dpd-ferrous dr dracunculiasi dracunculus draft drag drag-star draimad drain drain-dri drainabl drainag drainpac drake draw drawback drawdown drawer drawn dre dredg dreg dresden dresser dresser/jeffrey drew drewcor drewgard drewpac drexelbrook dri drift driftor driftwood drill drink drip drive driven drop droplet drought droughttoler drown drug drum drumm drumm-scal drumshear drumstik dry-al drycal dryer dryer/pelletizer dryer/processor dss dst dual dual-phas dualat duall duan dubl dubl-saf dublin duckbil duckwe duct due duke dump dunda dunde dunker duo duo-clarifi duo-deck duo-filt duo-fin duo-flo duo-pilot duo-vac duoreel duosparj duotherm duoval duplex dupont dur dura dura-disc dura-fus dura-mix dura-pac dura-pleat dura-trac durasan durat duratherm durco durex duriron duroflow durotex duroy dust dustex dustfal dustub duti dvb dvgw dwccl dwel dwell dwf dwi dwight dwpl dws dwt dwt-engin dye dyna dyna-grind dynabead dynablend dynaclear dynacycl dynafloc dynal dynalloy dynam dynamomet dynaphor dynasand dynasiev dynatherm dynatrol dynawav dynazym dyne dyneco dysenteri dysfunct dystor dystroph dystrophi dürr e e-beam e-cel e-mail e-tub e-z e.a e.g e.i e.s.g e/one e3b ea ead eaf eafd eag eagl eagle-pich eaglebrook eal eap ear earth earthen earthi earthquak earthtec earthworm earthy/musty easement easeout easier easili east eastern eastman eastmound easton easylogg eaten eater eau eb ebb ebct ebod ec ecesi ecf echo echo-lock echomax eci ecl eclips eco eco-log ecocar ecochoic ecodenit ecodri ecodyn ecoeffici ecolab ecolo ecolo-chief ecolochem ecolog ecoloquip ecolotech ecomachin ecomanag econ econ-ab econ-nox econ-o-star econ-o-vap econex econo econobay econolin econom economi economix economy-of-scal econopur econosep econotreat ecopur ecorock ecosorb ecosystem ecovap ecra ectotherm ed edat edb edc eddi eddyflow eden edf edg edi edison edit edl edr edstac edta educ educt eductogrit eductor edur edward edwardsvill edz eea eec eer eeru eesi eesl eet ef effect effort eftc efficienc efficient effizon effluent effluvium eg egest egg egg-shap egl egypt eh ehap ei eia eic eichrom eighth eil eimco eimcobelt eimcomet eimix eir eis/as eis/ps either ej ejector eka ekman ekokan ekofinn el elado elaps elast elasti elasti-lin elastom elastox elbac elbow elcat eldridg electod electostat electr electraflot electrically-driven electro electro-acoust electro/hydraulic electrocatalyt electrochem electrochemiluminesc electrocoagul electrod electrodeion electrodialysi electrodo electrokinet electrolysi electrolysis-gener electrolyt electromagnet electromat electromedia electrometr electron electronic-grad electrophoresi electropl electrosorpt electrostat electrotechn electrotechnolog element elev elf elf/anvar eli elimin elizabeth elkton elm elma elmcroft elmhurst elmwood eloxmonitor elsewher eltech eluant elutri em ema embank embed embryo emc emerg emeri emery-trailigaz emeryvill emerzon emi emiss emit emp emphysema empir employ empti emr emscher emsl emt emuls emulsifi emulsifi en enact enamel encapsul enclos enclosur encor encount encourag encrust encynova end end-of-pip end-us endang endanger endem endless endocrin endocrine-disrupt endogen endospor endotherm endotoxin endpoint endproduct endress endrin endur endura endurex enduro enelco energ energi energy-produc enforc engelhard engin engl england engler englewood enhanc enjoy enough enrich enro ensel ensi enso ent entail enter enterococci enterolert enterotoxin enterovirus enterpris enthalpi entir entiti entitl entolet entrain entranc entrap entri entropi envessel enviro enviro-blend enviro-car enviro-chem enviro-s envirochem envirodisc envirofab envirofirst envirogard envirogen enviromat enviroment envirometr environ environet environment enviropac enviropax enviroquip envirosystem envirotech envirovalv enviroflow enzym eo eop ep epa epa-issu epa-promulg epa200 epa500 epa600 epaa epc epco epcra epg ephemer epi epic epidem epidemiolog epilimnion episod epm epnl epri epsom eptc eq eql equal equat equilibrium equip equival er eram erc erda erect erg eri erl erlenmey ern erod eros erosion-resist errat erron error ert es esa escal escap escarp escherichia escondido esd esh esp espa especi essd essenti essex essi establish estat ester estim estrogen estuari eswtr esz et etc ethano ethanol ethen ether ethoxyl ethyl ethylbenzen ethylen ethylenediaminetetraacet etiolog etus etv eu eup euphot eureka euroform europ european eutect eutek eutroph ev eva evacu evalu evap evap-o-dri evapor evaporimet evaporit evapotranspir even event eventu evergreen everi everyon everfilt evid evidenc evita evolut evolv evt eweson ewpca ex exact examin exampl excav exceed excel exceltec except excess exchang exclus excrement excret excreta excyst exert exex exhaust exhibit exist exit exoskeleton exot exotherm exotox expand expans expect expel expend experi experienc experiment expert expir explan explod explos expos exposur exposure-high express expressclean expressor extend extendor extens extent exterior extern extinct exton extracellular extract extractor extractoveyor extrapol extrem extrud exxflow exfiltrat eye ez ez-bod f f.b f.e f.e.m.s f/m fab fabric fac face facil facilit fact factor factori facult fahd fahrenheit fail failur fair fairbank fairfax fairview fairway fairfield faith falaj falco fall fallen fallout fallova falmouth fals famili famin fan fan/separator fao faraday farm farmer farmingdal farmland farr fas fast fastek fasflo fat fatal fate fathom fatti fault fauna favair fax fb fbc fbr fbs fbx fc fc/fs fcs fda fe fe2so4 fe3 feasibl feastervill featur fecal fecascrew fecawash fece fecl3 fed feder fee feed feeder feedlot feedpac feedwat feedwel feel feet feldstrab fell fellbach fema fen fen-tech fenc fence-lin fenton fer ferguson feripac ferm ferment ferr ferr-x ferret ferri ferri-floc ferric ferriclear ferrit ferro ferrosand ferrous ferrov ferrozin fertil feso4 feso4-7h2o fetch fetus fever fffsg fgd fgh fibercon fibercor fiberflo fiberglass fibrotex fibrous fid fidic field field-erect fifra filament filawound filmshear filmtec filox filt filtaband filter filter-pak filterit filterm filternet filterpak filtersil filterworx filtomat filtra filtra-mat filtra-system filtrapak filtrasorb filtrat filtro filtroba filtron fim fimat final find fine fine-grain fineair finland fipro fire first fiscal fischer fish fish/screenings fisher fisheri fit fitch five five-day fix fixed-film fjord fl flame flameless flash flashvap flat fletcher flex flex-a-tub flex-i-lin flex-o-star flexair flexdisc flexdom flexi flexi-fabr flexi-jet flexibl fleximix flexipak flexishaft flexiflo flexklear flexkleen flexlin flexmat flexofus flexopl flexro flexscour fli flight flint flm flo flo-bust flo-conveyor flo-dar flo-lift flo-lin flo-mat flo-pok flo-screen flo-tot flo-war float float-treat floatal floc floc-pac flocculant/coagulant flocculator/clari flocid floclean floclear flocon flocor flocpress flocsettl flocsil floctreat floctrol flodri flogard flomag flomak floodgat floor florenc florida flotat flotherm flottweg flow floway floweri flowmax flowminutor flowrat flowsorb flowtrex flofilter flp flpma fluctuat flue fluepac fluid fluidactor fluidiz fluidizer-minor fluidyn flume flump fluoretrack fluorocarbon fluosolid flush flush-kleen flux flygt flymitec fm fm646 fma fmc fmc-mhs fmha fml fo foam foam-ab foamtex foamtrol fodder fog fold folic follow fomit fonsi font food food-to-microorgan foodstuff foot foot-pound forag forc ford forebay foreign forest foreword forg form formal formaldehyd formalin formasorb format formazin former formul formula formulab forsyth fort forth forum fossil fossil-fuel-fir foster fotovap foul foulant found foundat foundri fountain four fourier fourth fox fox-pac fp fpa fpei fpm fppa fps fqpa fr fraction fractur fragment fragranc framco frame framework franc franklin frazil fre fre-flo frederica frederick fredericton free free-fal free-flow free-slid free-swim free-float freeboard freeli freeport freevent freeway freez fremont freon frequenc frequent fresh freshet freshwat fresno freundlich frex fri friabl friction frictionflex fridgevap friend fring frog frontload frontrunn froth frp frs fruit fs fsa fsi fss ft ftir fto ftu fuch fuel fuge fugit full full-fit full-scal fuller fullerton fulli fulvic fume fumig fumigatus function fund fundament fungi fungicid fungus funnel funnel-shap fur furan furi furnac furnish furnitur furor furrow fuse fuser fusion futur futura futura-than fuzzi fwca fwer fwko fwpca fxb fy g g.e.t g.t.m ga gaap gabion gabriel gac gac10 gact gage gain gainesvill gal galleri gallon gallons-or galvan gamma gap gar gar-dur garbag gard garden gardin gardner garland garnet garra garret gas gas-born gas-dega gase gaseous gashold gasific gaslift gasohol gasolin gast gastight gastroenter gastrointestin gate gather gaug gauld gbt gc gc/ms gcl gdt ge gear gearhart gearmotor gebr geho geiger gel gelatin gelex gelgest gem gemco gemini gen gen-ozi gen2 gene general generat generic generon generox genesi genet genom genotox gentl genus geo geo-chem geocarb geocat geocomposit geodet geoenergi geograph geoguard geolog geomembran geometr geopur georgetown geosmin geosynthet geotech/ors geotexil geotextil geotextile-bentonit geothan geotherm gep germ german germani germantown germeni germicid geschmay gew gfc gff gfs ghanat ghg giardia giardiasi gilbert gill gillett girard girasiev gis give given gl glacial glacier gladiat gladsaxevej gland glasdek glass glasswar glassfiber glauber glauconit glc glegg glen glendiv glenridg glerl gli glison global globe glossari glp glwqa glycol glydas gm gmbh gmcc gnesi go goal godwin gold goldcoast golden goleta golf golfwat gon gone gooch good goodnatur goodrich goodtech goodwin goodfil gootech gop goppingen gor gordon gore gore-tex gorman gorman-rupp goteborg gould govern government governor gox gpd gpf gpg gpm gps gr grab grabber grace gradat grade graded-cel gradient gradual graduat graham grahamtek grain gram grand grandson granit grant granul granular granular-activ graphic gras grass grate gravabelt grave gravel graver gravex gravi gravi-merik gravi-pak gravilectr gravimetr gravipak gravisand gravit graviti gravity-activ gray graze grcda greas greaseburn greasi great greater greatest green green-color greenbriar greenhous greenleaf greensand greensboro greenspr greenwood greenfield gregg gregori grgl grid griductor grifter griffin grind grinder grit gritlift gritmeist gritreat gritt grizzli gro gross ground groundwat group grout grove grow grower grown growth growth-limit grp grub gto guard guardian guelph guid guidanc guidelin guinea gunbarrel gundl gundlin gundnet gundseal gutl guzzler gw gwdr gwi gwm gwui gy gypsum gyrazur gyulavari h h.i.l h2 h20 h2c h2nnh2 h2o h2o2 h2s h2sif6 h3o h4b h4k h4r ha haa haa5 haa6 haafp habit habitat hach hadal hadamar hadley hair hair-lik halberg half halid hall hallandal haloacet haloclin halogen halogen-carbon halon halophyt halsey hama hamburg hamden hamilton hammer hammer-lik hammerhead hammermil hammond han hand hand-off-automat handbook handl handler hankin hanley hap hapem happ happen happi harbor harborlit harborwork hard harden hardi harding hardpan harleysvill harm harmless harmoni harmsco harri harrison hartley hastelloy hasten hatrem hauppaug hauser hav haven haverhil hawker hay hayn hayward hazard haze hazelton hazelwood hazen hazen-william hazleton hazmat hazop hazwop hbv hc hcfcs hcl hco3 hcv hd3 hdpe hdt hdxlpe head header headloss headwat headwork heal heali health health-bas healthi healy-ruff hear heard hearth heartwood heat heat-treat heatamix heatconduct heater heatx heavi heavier heavier-than-air hectar heeb hei height heinkel hela hela-flow helaskim held helen heli heli-press helic helicarb heliclean helico helio heliobact helisiev heliskim helithicken helium helixpress heliflow hellmut helminth help helsinki hem hemet hemi hemi-hydr hemispher hemosa henri henrietta hepa hepat heptachlor heptahydr herb herbac herbacid herbicid herbivor hercul hereditari herit heron hes heterogen heterotroph hevi hevi-duti hewitt hexametaphosph hexaval heyl hf hfcs hgl hhc hhe hhw hi hi-cap hi-flo hi-gard hi-iron hi-lift hi-lucid hi-pass hi-rat hi-tech hi-tork hi-v hidrost hierarchi hiflo high high-energi high-flux high-level high-occup high-poros high-rat high-risk high-test high-to-low higher highest highland highpoint highstrength highway hill hillsid hinder hindon hing hinsilblon hiop hiox hip hiperfilt histori hitachi hiv hjorthagsgatan hll hlw hm hmip hmis hmr hmta hmtr hno3 hoa hobr hoc hoch2ch2oh hodgkin hoffland hog holbrook hold holden holder hole holiday holland hollenbeck holli hollidaysburg hollosav hollosep hollow homa home homeown homogen homomix hon hondo honey hong hood hoover hope hopper hopper-bottom horizon horizont hormon horn horsepow horsham hose hosepump hosokawa hospit host hot hotter hour hous household houston hov howard howe howe-bak howev hp hp-hybrid hpc hpd hpi/cpi hplc hpv hrb hrc hrgc hri hri-biotek hrms hrs hrsg hrt hrup hsc hsdb hsl hswa hta htc hth hto htp htw hubair huber huber/huber hubert huddersfield hugh huisman huma human human-induc humat humboldt humic humid humidific humific hummix humus hundredweight hungari hungerford hunt huntington hurd huron hurox hurrican hutchin hvac hvac/r hvaf hvio hvlc hw hwcl hwdms hwf hwgtf hwi hwir hwis hwl hwlt hwm hwtc hx hy hy-q hy-spe hyacinth hybrid hychem hycor hyde hydecat hydra hydra-mix hydra-press hydra-track hydracap hydradens hydranaut hydrapaint hydrasand hydrasep hydrasiev hydrat hydratow hydraucon hydraul hydrazin hydro hydro-aerob hydro-chek hydro-circ hydro-clear hydro-con hydro-flo hydro-float hydro-grit hydro-jet hydro-l hydro-lift hydro-lit hydro-press hydro-rotor hydro-saf hydro-shear hydro-sock hydro-zap hydrobend hydroblast hydroburst hydroc hydrocarbon hydrocel hydrochlor hydrochlorofluorocarbon hydroclean hydroclor hydroclor-q hydrocyclon hydrodarco hydrodri hydroelectr hydroflo hydrofloat hydrofloc hydroforc hydrogen hydrograph hydrogritt hydrolab hydrolog hydrolysi hydrom hydromet hydron hydronium hydroperm hydrophil hydrophob hydrophyt hydropillar hydropneumat hydropon hydropress hydropunch hydrorak hydrorang hydros hydroscreen hydroself hydrosep hydrosepar hydroshear hydrosil hydroslid hydrospher hydrostat hydrotest hydrovex hydrowash hydroxid hydroxyl hydrozon hydrofilt hydroflo hydrofloc hydrofluor hydrofluorocarbon hydrofluosilic hydroflush hydrymax hyetograph hyflo hygen hygien hygienist hygromet hygroscop hymerg hyper hyperbranch hyperflex hypernet hyperpress hypersensit hyperspers hyperfiltr hyperfloc hyphen hypo hypo-gen hypobrom hypochlor hypochlorit hypochlorite-gener hypolimnet hypolimnion hypoxia hypress hysep hytrex hyveyor i.e i/a i/i i/o ia iaf iap iaq iatdb ibt ibwa ic icbn ice ice-away icea icold icr icrp id id50 ida ident identifi identifi identific idexx idi idl idlh idp idreco idrex ie iec ieee ieswtr ifa igcc igf igneous ignit ignor ii ii-plp iia iii il ilc ill illeg illinoi ilmenit im imac imaginari imbibit imf imhoff immedi immers immisc immun immunoassay immunodefici immunofluoresc imp impac impact impair impart impel imperi imperm impervi imping implement import impos impound impress imprint improp improv impuls impur imr in-channel in-depth in-fe in-lin in-situ in-vessel inabl inact inactiv inadequ inc incap incent inch inchen incid incident inciner inclin includ inclus incom incompat incomplet incorpor incorrect increas incrust incub incutrol independ index indefinit indian indianapoli indic indigen indigest indirect indiscrimin indistinguish individu indoor induc induct industri industries/roots industrieweg industry-specific industry-sponsor industry/chemical industryspecific inert inerti infant infect infecti infest inform infrar infrastructur infrequ infring infus ingenieur ingenieurs-conseil ingersol ingersoll-dress ingest ingleton ingredi inhabit inhal inher inhibit inhibitor inipol initi inject injector injur injuri ink inland inlet innocul innov inocul inoculum inorgan input input/output inquiri insect insecticid insert insid insolubl inspect inspector inspectra instal instanc instant instantan instead instens institut instomix instrument insuffici insul insulin intak integr integra intellisiev intend intens intensa intent inter inter-mix inter-sep interact interceptor intercondens interconnect interest interfac interfaci interfer intergovernment intergranular interim interior interlay intermedi intermingl intermitt intern internalift interox interparticl interpos interrelationship interrupt interst interstag interstic interstiti intertrad interv intestin intra intrachannel intracid introduc introduct intrus inund inventori invers invert invertebr invessel invinc invis involuntari involv inward infilco infiltrat infiniti inflamm inflow influenc influent ioc iodid iodin iodometr ion ion-select ionac ionic ioniz ionospher ionpur iopor iorio ip ipa ipc ipcc iplp ipp iqs/3 iron iron-bas iron-carbon-silicon iron-mak irradi irregular irrevers irrig irrit irvin isa isbn isco isep isf isl island iso isobar isobath isochron isocyan isohalin isohyet isol isom isopleth isopropyl isotherm isothiazalon isotop issaquah issu isthmus itali italic item itt iu iv ivyland iw iwem iwpf iwt ix ixper j j-belt j-flow j-mate j-press j-spin j-track j-vap jac jack jackbolt jacket jackknif jackson jacksonvill jacquelyn jaeger jame jameel janesvill januari japan japca jar jasper jay jayfloc jbf jbs jct jdv ject jefferson jeffrey jelclear jell jet jet-chlor jet-tex jet-wet jeta jeta-mat jetiii jetmix jetsam jetti jettison jh jigrit jim joe john johnson join joint jone jonesboro jori jose joul journal jtu jud judgement judici juic juli jump junction justic juvenil jwc jwi k k-floc k-floor k-tron k-w k2 kadi kaldn kame kamet kan kan-floc kansa kaolin karb karl karlsruh karst kason kastner kat kat-floc katabat katch katec kati katox kca kcc kd kd-hf kearni kebab keen keep keho keith kelli kelvin kem kem-tron kemco kemiron kenamar kenic kenit kennesaw kenosha kent kerri kesler ketema keton key key-pac keyston kft kg kg/sq khz kill kiln kiln-dri kiln-fir kilo kilocalori kilogram kilopasc kilowatt kilowatt-hour kimr kind kinemat kinesi kinet kinetico king kingston kinney kit kita kita-ku kiwa kiwi kj kjeldahl kl klampress klaranlagen klargestor klean kleen kleer klein klenpho klensorb klenzoid klor km km/hr knapp knife knight knight-botec knob knob-lik knock knockout knot know knowl known knox knoxvill koagul koch koch-otto kochkleen kochtreat kokomo komara komax komlin komline-sanderson kompakt kompress komprimat konsolid kopck kopper koro koro-z koflo kpa kraft kraus kraus-fal krauss krc kreb krefeld krill kristar krofta kruger/fuchs krugerworld.com krupp krüger ks ku kube3 kulp kvaerner kw kwh ky kyoto l l/d l3r l4k l4n l6m l6v l6w l7g la lab label laboratori lack lactic ladd ladder laer lafayett lagco lagoon lagooner laguna laid laitila lake lakeland lakesid lakeview lako lal lam lam-pak lamblia lamel lamella lamgard lamin laminar lamp lampoc lamson lanc lanci lanco lancom land landa landfarm landi landov landox landscap landustri landfill lane lang langeli langenhagen lanpac lansdal lansdown lantec laps larami laran larg large-quant larger largest larox larva larval las lasair lasso last latenc latent later latest latitud lator latti lattic lauderdal launder laundri laval lavasol law lawrencevill lawsuit lay layer layn lb/mil lc lc50 lci lcl lcr lcrs ld ld50 ldc ldcrs ldr lds le leach leachabl leachat lead leadtrak leaf leagu leak leakag leakwis least leather leav leaverton lebanon lectra/san led lee leech leem left leg legal legionella legionnair legisl lehman lel lemna lemnacea lemtec len lenexa length lennox lenox lens lentic leo leo-lit leopold leovis lepa less lessen lesshazard let lethal lev leve level levig lewatit lewi lex lexington lf lfg lfl lhw li liabil liber libertyvill librari licens license licensor lichen licon lie life lifecycl lifeserv lifetim lift ligand light lighthous lightnin lightspe lightweight lignin lignit like likelihood lilburn lim limb limberflo lime lime-and-settl lime-soda limeston limestone-inject limit limitor limnolog limulus lincoln lind lindan lindbergh linde-kca-dresden lindenhurst lindom lindox line lineal linear liner link link-belt linpor lint linx lipid lipophil liquaclon liquapac liquefact liquefi liquefi liqui liqui-cel liqui-fug liqui-phas liqui-strain liqui/jector liquid liquid-liquid liquid-mis liquid-solid liquid/gas liquid/solid liquidow liquidpur liquilaz liquiph liquipro liquipur liquitron liquifi liquor lisl list lite liter liters-per-hour lithium litholog lithospher litmustik litr litter littl littor live liver livermor livestock livingston llc lld lle lll llq llw lme lmi ln lng lo lo-cat lo-head lo-hi lo-pro lo/pro load load-bear loael loam lobe lobe-air lobestar lobeflo loc local locat loch lock lockport locomot lod lodeston loel log log-death log-growth log10 logan logarithm logeasi logger logic loi loma london long long-term longer longitudin longopac longwood lonox loop loos loq loretta los lose loss lost lotepro lotic loui louisvill love loveland loveless loveton low low-cost low-energi low-grow low-level low-li low-oxygen low-perm low-shear low-flow lowel lower lower-energi lowest lowest-observed-adverse-effect lowest-observed-effect lowland lowri lox lp lpde lpf lpg lqg lqhs lsc lsi lsr lstk lta ltd lteswtr lubric luci lucid ludington ludwigshafen luebb lufkin luft lumen lump lung lure lurgi lust lvhc lwl lwt lx lyco lynn lynx lyse lysi lysimet lystat m m-alkalin m-coliblue24 m-roy m.d m17 m3 m4a m9w ma maccrea macer macerac machin machineri macho mack macpac macro macro-cat macroencapsul macrofoul macrolit macromolecul macroorgan macrophyt macropor macroreticular macroscop macrofloc mact mactherm madam made maden madison maf maffei mag magazin magicblock magma magmet magna magnasol magnafloc magneclear magnesia magnesium magnesium-bas magnesiumto magnesiumto-calcium magnet magnetit magnitud magnific magnifloc magnum magox mahr mail main mainland maintain mainten maitlen majesti major make makeup malaria malathion malden mall mallard malleabl malmo malnutrit malodor malvern mammal mammalian mammoth man man-mad manag manassa manchest mandat mandatori manganes manganex manhattan manhol mani manifest manifold manipul mankato manmad manner mannich manomet manor mansfield mantl manu manu-mat manual manufactur manur manver manvill manway manzanita map mar marco marcus mard marden margin marietta marin marion mark market marketech markham markland marlow marlton marolf marox marsh marsh-mcbirney marshal marshalltown marshland marshmcbirney martin mascheroni mask masonri maspac mass massiv master master-flo mat match mate materi mathemat matheson matic matrix matt matt-son matter matteson matur maud mawr max max-load max-pak maxair maxco maxi maxi-flo maxi-rotor maxi-strip maxi-tank maxi-yield maxim maximum maximum-to-minimum maxipress maxisep maxflo may maybri mayor maz maz-o-r maze mazzei mbas mbbr mbr mbs mc mcbirney mcc mccartney mccormick mccromet mcgill mcginn mcginnes-royc mcl mclanahan mclg mcrt mctigh md mdi mdl mdtoc mean meander meaning mearn measur meat meb meccanica mechan meco mectan mecuri mecury-contain med media medic medicin medina medinensi medium medium-s meet megacel megalit megat megatron megawatt mego megohm megohm-cm megtec meidl mek mekor mellafi melt meltdown melter meltwat mem member membio membralox membran membrana membrane-clean membrane-control membrapro membrastil membrex memclean memcor memexx memloy memori memory-flex memphi memstor memtec memtek memtrex memtrol mendham mendota meniscus mensch mentor meoh mep meq/l mequon mer mer-mad mercaptan mercer merco mercuri merg merger meriden meridian merik merlin merrick mesa mesa-lin mesh mesocosm mesophil mesophyt mesospher mesothelioma mesotroph met met-pro metabol metabolit metaguard metal metal-drop metalimnion metalweav metastasi mete meteorolog meter metex methacryloyl methan methanogen methanol methemoglobinemia method method-specific methoxychlor methyl methyl-tertiary-butyl-eth methylen methylisoborneol metito metr metric metro metrol metron metropolitan meunier meurer meva mf mfg mfs mft mg mg/cu mg/l mgd mgi mgid mgso4 mho mhs mhsa mht mi miasma mib mic michigan micrasiev micro micro-carbon micro-irrig micro-klean micro-mat micro-pi micro-polatrol micro-processor-driven micro-siev micro-sprinkl micro-t micro/2000 microb microbi microbiocid microbiolog microbiot microbloc microcat microchem microclim microdaf microelectron microencapsul microenfraction microfauna microfibr microfid microfoul microgap microgram microlift micromass micromax micromesh micromet micromho micron micronair micronutri microorgan micropor micropurg microscop microscreen microsep microsporidia microstrain microtox microtuff microza microfilm microfiltr microfloat microfloc middl middleburg middletown midg midi midi-rotor midland midnight midway mie mightypur migrat mike mil milan milbi milburn mile miles-per-gallon milford militari milk mill millennium miller millersvill milli milliamper milliequival milligram millilit millimet million millionth millipor milliscreen milltown milltron milpita milton milwauke minder mine miner mini mini-ject mini-magna mini-maxi mini-milli mini-mis mini-r mini-san minibus minichamp minidisk miniga minim minimax minimum minipur miniseri minneapoli minnetonka minntech minor minotaur minus minut miox mira miscellan miscibl miser misonix missouri mist mist-mast mistaken mistgard mite mitig mitochondria mitt mix mix-mat mixaer mixair mixairtech mixco mixer mixer/blender mixotroph mixtur mixflo ml mllw mlm mlss mltss mlvss mm mn mo mobil mobileflow mobilero mobius mod mod-u-flo model moder modifi modific modo modo-chemet modu modu-plex modul modulab modular modulozon modustor modutank moduflow moe moin moist moistur mokena molal molar mold mole molecul molecular molitor molluscicid mollusk molpur molsep molten molybdenum molyv mom monel monetari money monitek monitor monkey monmouth mono mono-ferm mono-floc mono-pak mono-pilot monobelt monoblock monoclust monod monodispers monohydr monolift monolith monom monomedia monomict monorak monoscour monosparj monospher monoval monovalv monoxid monozon monofil monofila monoflo monoflor monro monsanto monster mont montesano montgomeri montgomeryvill month montreal monument mooer moonachi moonwalk moor morain morbid morphin morristown mors mortal mos moss moth moth-proofing mother motion motionless motiv motodip motor motor-actu motor-driven motorcycl motorless mottl mound mount mountain mountian mouth move movement mover moyno mp mpa mph mpn mpr mprox mpvt mql mrdl mrdlg mrf mrfs mrl ms msbr msd msds msf msf-br msf-ot msl msw mswlf mt mtbe mtbf mtd mtp mts mttr mtz muc much muck mud muddi mueller muffin muffler muhlenhof mulch multdigest multi multi-chem multi-flow multi-ga multi-jet multi-level multi-mag multi-media multi-pack multi-point multi-purpos multi-stag multi-tech multi-turi multi-wash multi-zon multicel multicellular multiclon multicoil multicon multicret multidraw multiflow multilogg multimedia multipass multipl multiport multirang multistag multitroph multiwash multiflo munchebstein muncher munchpump mundo municip muniflo munn munox munter muntz muriat muromachi murray mus musculoskelet mushroom muskrat mussel must musti mutagen mutat mutil mutrat mutual mvc mvr mw mwco mwd mx mycelx mycotoxin myer mystair münster n n-diethyl-p-phenylenediamin n-trak n-viro n.e n.w n/a n11163 n115 n1h n3t n555g n5v naaq nace nadir nae nafco nagog nahmp nake nalclear nalco nalmet nalon name nanogram nanomet nanofiltr nao naoh napap napc napervill napl napp napthalen nara narrat narrow nas nasti natal natic nation nativ natur naturally-occur nautic nautilus navig nawqa nb nbod nbs nc ncasi nccls ncg nch ncp ncs ncws nd ndo ndp ndt ndwc ne ne/scent near neat nec necessari need needham needl neenah neetf nefco negat negoti neighbor neighborhood neither nelap nema nematocid nematod nemo nemour neopren neosepta neotron neozon nepa nephelomet nephelometr neptun nerv neshap nessler net net-wast neta netherland netic network netzsch neurolog neutral neutralit neutraman neutron neva neva-clog never new newark newburi newport newton newtonian next nf nfpa nfr nfrap ng/l nh nh2 nh3 nh4 nh4no3 niagara nibbler nichol nichonbashi nichonbashi-muromachi nickel nickel-bas nicotin niefern niefern-oschelbronn night nih nill nimbi niosh niro nirosta niskayuna nist nitox nitra nitra-select nitrat nitrav nitrazym nitric nitrifi nitrilotriacet nitrit nitrific nitrification-inhibit nitrobact nitrogen nitrophenol nitrose nitrosomona nitrous nitrox niña niño nj nm nmfs nmo nmr nni no-cl no-wear no-wel no2 no3 noaa noael nobil nocardia nocturn nod nodul noec noel nogcoflot noggerath nohscp nois noise-induc nom nomin non non-compli non-crystallin non-manufactur non-natur non-oxid non-tox nonaer nonaqu nonbiodegrad nonbuoy noncarbon noncatalyt noncharg nonclog noncombust noncommun noncondens nonconduct noncontact noncontinu nondegrad nondestruct none nonemulsifi nonferr nonforest nonhazard nonintersect nonion nonleach nonlead nonliv nonlubr nonmechan nonmet nonmetal nonmethan nonparallel nonpermit nonphotosynthet nonpoint nonpollut nonpot nonpurg nonputresc nonregist nonregulatori nonrenew nonresid nonsettl nonspecific nonstationari nonsymmetr nontoilet nontox nontransi nonutil nonvolatil nonyl nonfilter nonfloccul nopol nopon nor-pac norair noram norchem norcross nordic norfolk norit norm normal norristown nortex north north-american northbrook northern northland northup northval northwest norton norwalk norwalk-typ norway norwood nose notat notch note notic notim notific nourish novac novex novi novus nowata nox noxid noxious noxon noxout nozzl npca npdes npdwr npe nphap npl npoc nps npsh npsha npshr npt nra nrep nrg nrl nrwa nsdwrs nsf nsps nssc nsw nta ntis ntncws ntp ntr ntu nu nu-notch nu-treat nuclear nuclei nuclepor nucleus nuclid nug nuisanc number numer nuov nupac nutech nutley nutralit nutri nutrient nutrient-medium nutrient-rich nutrigest nutrit nutshel nv nvcu nvoc nw nwpa nwqs nwsia ny nyack nylon o o/w o2 o3 oak oakvill oakwood oas oasi ob ob/od oberschlesienstr object objection oblig obscur observ obsolet obstacl obstruct obtain oca occ occlus occup occupi occur occurr ocean ocean-go oceansid ocl ocl3 ocpsf od oda odel odin odopho odor odor-fre odor-mis odor-ox odorgard odorless odorlok odormast odp oem off-ga off-sit offal offer offset offshor ofr often offic officer official ogden ogwdw oh ohl ohm ohmicron oil oil-in-wat oil-mind oil/condensate oil/water oili oilmast oilspin ok oki okner old oldest oleophil oleofilt olfactomet oligohalin oligotroph oliv olympia om omega omiss on-demand on-lin on-sit once-through one one-hour one-millionth one-on one-thousandth ontario onto opa opaqu open open-channel oper oppos opposit optic optim optimum option orang orange-yellow orano orchard order ordin ordinari ore organ organopesticid organophosph origin oritex oriv orific orlean osaka oschelbronn oscil osec osha osmon osmosi osmot osp osprey ot otec other otherwis otto otv ounc out-of-d outbreak outdoor outer outermost outfal outlet outlin output outsid outward outflow oval oven overh overhung overlap overlay overreact overse oversight overflow own owner ownership owosso ox ox17 oxan oxid oxidation/reduction oxidation/wastewater oxidiz oxnard oxyditch oxygen oxygen-activ oy ozi ozon ozone-deplet ozone-gener ozonia p p.e p.o p36 pa pac pacific pack packag pactec pad paddl paint pair pak pall palm palmyra panel pankratz paper paper-lik papermak paqu par par-la-vill parallel paramet parasit parent parenter pari park parkson parkway parkwood parshal parsippani parson part parti partial particl particul particular partit parvum pascal paseo paso pass passag passageway passav passavant-roedig passiv past pasteur pastur patashnick patera paterson path pathogen patholog pathway patienc pattern patterson patux paul paularino pavement pay pb pbr pc pc-driven pcbs pci pci-wedeco peachleaf peachtre peapack pearl pearlit peat peat-bas pecan peer pel pellet pencad penetr pennprocess pennsylvania peopl pepcon per percarbon perceiv percent percentag percept percol perfor perform perimet perinault period peripher peripheri peristalt perkinelm perlit permafrost perman permangan permeabl permeat permiss permit permitte peroxid peroxyhydr perpendicular perpich perri perrin persist person personnel perspir pertain peru pest pesticid peter petit petroff petroleum petter pfaffikon ph ph.d ph/orp pharmaceut pharmacopeia pharmacopoeia phase phelp phenol phenomenon phenylenediamin philadelphia phillip phipp phoenix phoenixvill phone phosphat phosphor phosphorus photo photocatalyt photochem photocopi photoelectr photosynthesi phylum physic physical-chem physical/chemical physiolog pi pica picher picker picket pier pier-mount pig pigment pile pilot pin ping pipe pipelin pipewal piqua piranha piston piston-typ pit pitch pitman pitt pitt-d pittsburgh pivot pkwi pl place plagu plain plainfield plan plane plant plant-lik plant-produc plasti plasti-fab plastic plate plaza pleas pleat plex plot plow plp plug plumb plume plumsteadvill plunger plural plus plymouth pmt pneumat pneumatic-typ pneumonia po31 pocket point poison poke pol.ind polar polatrol pole polici polio polish pollen polli pollin pollut pollution-specific pollution/solid polyaluminum polyamid polybac polychem polydyn polyelectrolyt polyethylen polyjet polym polymast polymer polyp polyphosph polypropylen polyspora polyurethan polyvinyl pond poor popul pore poros porous port portabl portag porter portion portland portwest pose posit posita possess possibl post postal postfach potabl potassium potenti pottstown pound pour poway powder powder-activ powderhorn power ppg ppm pq practic prairi praxair praxair-trailigaz pre pre-fabr pre-ignit pre-thicken precast precip precipit precis precoat precursor predat predecessor predetermin predict predomin prefabr prefac prefer preheat preliminari prematur premier prepar prescrib preselect presenc presence/absence present preserv preset press press/conveyor pressur pressure-driven pressure-f presumpt pretreat preval prevent previous prefilter prefix primari primarili prime primit princeton princip principl print prior priorit prioriti privat privi pro pro-ent pro-equip probabl probe probiot problem procedur process process/ketema processor procur produc product product-level profession professor progeni program programm progress proguard prohibit project prolong promin promis promot promulg proof proofing propect propel proper properti proport propos proprietari propuls protazoan protect protector protein protocol proton protoplasm prototech protozoa protozoan protrud prove proven provid provis proxim profil pruf prussia psd psi psychoda pti public publish 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richey richmond ridg ridgefield right rigid rim ring ringlac rins ripen rise riser risk riva river riversid riviera ro road roadway roanok roast robbin robbinsvill robert rochem rochest rock rockford rockvill rod rod-shap rodent rodentcid rodenticid rodney roedig roger rohm role roll roller ronningen ronningen-pett room roosevelt rooster root roofing ropur rosa rosco rose rosemont rosemount rosenmund rosevill rosewat ross rotari rotat rothschild roto roto-siev rotor rotron roug rough roughen round rout routin row roy royal royc roz rto rubber rubbl rubidium ruff ruin rule rulemak rumsey run runoff rupp rupprecht ruptur rural rush russel rutger rutherford ruthner s.a s.p s.r.l sack saco sacramento safe safeti sag saginaw salabl salamand sale salem salin salt salti saltwat sami sampl sampler san sanborn sanctuari sand sanderson sandi sandvika sandfilter sanford sanit sanitair sanitari sant santa sara sarah sarasota satisfi satisfi satur saudi saugerti save sawdust sawmil sb sc scale scale-caus scaleless scar scarborough scarc scatter scaveng scenic schaumburg schedul scheme schistosomiasi schlicher schloss schlueter schneibl school schoolhous schreiber schreiber-klaranlagen schuell schumannstrab scicorp scienc scienco/fast scientist scientific scoop scope scottish scottsdal scour scrap scrape scraper screen screen/grinder/solids screening-rel screw screw-typ screw/centrifugal scrub scrubber scubber scum sd sdwa se sea seal sealant sealless seaman season seat seawat second second-stag secondari secret section secur sedgley sediment sedimentari see seed seen seep seepag sefar segher segment segreg seismic select selecto selector self self-aspir self-clean self-cleans self-contain self-induc self-maintain self-prim self-support self-sustain self-track semblex semi semi-enclos semi-perm semi-fluid semichem semiperm semisolid semivolatil send seneca sens sensat sensit sensor sentex sep separ separator/screw septag septic sequenc sequest sequestr serck seri serious sernagiotto serpentix serv servic servomex serfilco set seton settl settleabl settler settler/thickener seven seventh sever several sewag sewer seymour sf shadowridg shaft shaftless shaken shakope shallow shank shannon shape shappert share shari sharptown shaver shear sheath shed sheet shell shell-and-tub shellfish shelter shepherd sheraton shermer shift ship shipper shock shoe shok shop shore short short-circuit short-liv short-term shortag shorter shot show shower shown shred shredder shreveport shrimp shrimp-lik shure shutdown shute shutoff shuttl si sibley siddeley side side-by-sid sidestream siev sigma signifi signific silbrico silic silica silicon silo silt silver similar simon simon-hartley simpl simpler simpli simul simultan sinai singl single-cel singular sink sinus sioux siphon site situ situat six six-sid size skelet skid skid-mount skill skim skimmer skin skoki sky slaker slaughter sleev slender slick slide slope slot slow slowli slt sludg sluic slung slurri small smaller smallest smell smelt smetana smith smithfield smog smoke smooth smyrna snail sneek snow snowmelt snyder so2 so4 soak soap soborg social societi sock sock-typ soda sodium soft soften softwar soil solar sold sole solid solid/liquid solidifi solidifi solidific solids/liquid solids/screenings solids/turbidity solidur solinst solubl solucorp solut solvay solvent somat sombra somerset somerton somervill someth sometim son sorb sorbat sorbent sort sound soundproofing sourc south southeast southern southwick southfield soybean space space-sav span sparg spark spauld spear spec speci special specialist specialti speciat specifi specimen specifi specific spectometri spectromet spectrometri spectrophotometr spectrophotometri spectrum speed spell spencer spent sper sperm sperri sphere sphere-shap spheric spider spike spike-shap spill spillway spin spirac spiral split splitter spong sponge-lik spongi sponsor spontan spool spore spore-form spot spray spray-typ spread spring springdal springfield sprinkler sprocket sprout sprout-bauer sq squar squeez squid sre srf srs st st4 stabil stabl staci stack stack-pip stadium stafford staffordshir stage stagnant stagnat stahler stain stainless stak stale stamford stamp stancor stand standard stanley star start starvat state statement static station stationari statist status stavoren ste steam steam-activ steam-jet steam-pow steel steep stellendam stem stem-oper step steril sterl sternson stetson steven stick sticki stile stiles-kem still stimul stimulus stir stirred-tank stockhausen stoke stoke-on-tr stomach stone stone-lik stonelik stonewood stop stopcock storag storage-stream stord store stori storm stormceptor stormi stormtreat stormwat stove stoystown strabe straight straight-through strain strainer strainer-typ strass strata strateg strategi strathmor stratifi stratifi stratific stratospher stratum stream streamlin street strength streptococci stress stretch strict strike strip stripper strong strong-acid strong-bas structur strychnin stuart student studi stump sturbridg styren suarez subcellular subgroup subject sublim submerg submers subsequ substanc substant substanti substitut substrat subsurfac subtitl success suction suction-typ sudburi sudden suds suffoc suffolk sufficient sugar suggest suhner suitabl sulfat sulfatreat sulfon sulfur sulfur-oxid sulfurbear sultatreat sulzer sulfid sulfit sum sumitomo summat summer sump sun sunlight sunnyval super super-cel supercool superfund supernat supplement suppli supplier support surf surfac surfaceliquid surfact surfpac surpris surrog surround surveil survey surviv suscept suspect suspend suspended-solid suspens sustain sutcliff svc svedala sw swab swamp sweco sweden swedesboro sweep sweet sweetland swell swept swim swing switch switzerland swollen sybron symbol symmetri symon symptom syndrom synetix synonym synthes synthesi synthet syracus system system/area system/point süd süd-chemi t2h t99.9 tab tabl tablet tactic taft tah tail tail-lik tailpip takashi take taken talisman tall tallevast tamp tampa tan taney tank tannin tap taper tar target task tast tate td9 tds tear tec tech technic techniqu techniflo technolog technology-bas tecnet teeth tehnolog telemetri telephon telescop tell tellkamp temik temp temperatur temporari ten ten-thousandth tenax tenco tend tendenc tennesse tensil tension term termin terminolog terra terrac terri tertiari test tester tetra tetraethyl tetratec tex texa textil textur tf thane theodor theoret theori therebi therefor thereof thermaco thermacon thermafab thermal thermatrix thermax thermocompressor thermodynam thermomet thermophil thermoplast thermostat thesi thick thick-wal thicken thickener-clarifi thief thin thing thioalcohol thiol thiosulf third thoma thomasvill thorn though thought thousand thousandth thread threat threaten three three-dimension threshold thrive throat throughout throughput throw thus thyssen tick tidal tide tiernan tiger tigg tight tile till timber timberlin time time-weight timmonsvill timonium tin tinley tip tire tissu tite titl titrat tl tls tn tn12 tobacco toc toccoa today todd togeth toilet tokyo toledo toler toluen tom ton tonebridg tonka tonn tonner took tool tooth top topsoil tor toray tork torn toronto torqu total tote totowa touch toward tower town townhurst townsend township toxic toxicolog toxin toyobo trac trace track track-mount tracker tract trade trademark tradit trafford traffic trail trailer trailer-mount trailigaz trailmat train trait trak tramp transam transduc transfer transform transient transmembran transmiss transmit transmitt transpar transpir transport transunion trap trapezoid trapezoidal-shap trash travel tray tray-typ treat treater treatment treatment/metals tree tremor trench trend trent trevos trey tri tri-mer triangular triangular-shap trichloroacet trickl triglycerid trihalomethan trihydr trim triphosph trisep triton trival trojan tron tropic troublesom trough truck true trumbal trunk trussvill trust trusti tthmfp tto tts tu tualatin tub tube tube-typ tubercl tubercul tubesheet tubular tuc tucson tuff tuff-span tulip tuller tulsa tulsion tumor tumor-caus tundra tunnel turbid turbidimet turbin turbo turbo-dry turbo-scour turbo-vac turboblad turbocharg turboclean turbodrain turboflow turboshredd turbostripp turbotron turbozon turbofil turbul turf turgid turi turn turndown turner turnkey turnov turvekuja tuthil tva tvc tvr twa twin twinsburg twister twl two two-stag two-stori two-tray twps tws tx txpro tyler tync type typhoid typhoon typic tysul tytron tz u u-shap u-tub u.k u.s uaqi uarg ubc ublock ucc ucci ucl udmh uel uf ufl ufrv ufw uhmw uhr uic ukrainian ul ulcer ullag ultim ultima ultipleat ultipor ultra ultra-guard ultra-sweep ultra-urban ultra-violet ultrabar ultracept ultrachem ultradom ultraflex ultrahigh ultrahigh-molecular-weight ultramix ultrapur ultrascrub ultrasep ultrason ultrastrip ultratest ultraviolet ultraviolet/ozonation ultrafiltr ultraflot ultraflow ultrex ultrion ultrox unabl 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usfilter/bekox usfilter/contra-shear usfilter/control usfilter/cpc usfilter/davco usfilter/davis usfilter/dewatering usfilter/dewplan usfilter/diffused usfilter/electrocatalytic usfilter/envirex usfilter/filtration usfilter/gas usfilter/general usfilter/gutling usfilter/headworks usfilter/hpd usfilter/hubert usfilter/industrial usfilter/jet usfilter/johnson usfilter/kr usfilter/lowell usfilter/memcor usfilter/metito usfilter/micro usfilter/operating usfilter/rex usfilter/rj usfilter/rockford usfilter/rossmark usfilter/schumacher usfilter/smogless usfilter/stranco usfilter/wallace usfilter/warren usfilter/westates usfilter/whittier usfilter/zimpro usfiltercorp usg usp usp-purifi usp-qual usph ust usual ut util uv uv254 uv3000 uv4000 uv8000 uvast uvox uvt v v-auto v-cone v-notch v-shape v/dorr-oliver v/dorroliver v5c v6j va vac vaciamadrid vacpac vacu vacu-treat vacuat vaculift vacuum vacuum-oper vacflush vadnai vados val val-mat valenc valhalla valid valley valu valuabl valuat valuemax valv valveless van vancouv vane vanguard vanton vap vapcci vapor vaporm vapur var vara vari vari- vari-c vari-pond variabl variair varianc variat varieti various variport varisiev varitank varivoid variflo vatavuk vatip vator vaughan vault vayor vc vce vcm vdb vds ve vector vector-born vee vee-wir vega veget vehicl vein vekton vektor velig veligon veloc velomet vent vent-scrub ventil ventox ventsorb ventur ventura venturi veo verder verderflex verifi verific vermicultur vero version versipad vertebr vertech verti verti-flo verti-jet verti-press vertic verticel vertimat vertimil vertiscreen vessel vestrip veteran vfd via viabl vial vibra vibra-mat vibra-screen vibrasiev vibrat vibrio vicenza vietnam view vigger vigr vikoma vill vincent vinegar vineland vinyl violat violet vip viral viralt virchem viro virtual virul virus viscera viscomat viscos viscous visibl vista vistex visual vital vitec vitox vitriol vitrifi vitro vivo vla vmi vmt vo voc vocabulari vocarb void voith volatil volatile-suspend volcano volclay vollmar volt voltag voluett volum volumet volumetr voluntari vomit vortair vortech vortechn vortex vortex-lik vorti vorti-mix vostrip voyag vps vrto vs vsd vsr vss vt vtc vte vtsh vtx vulcan vulner vvc w w.l w/o w175 w1900 w226 w5 wa wa4 waal wac wadi wagner wagon wake wale walhalla walk walker wall wallac walland wallend walnut waltham wao war ware warfar warm warm-blood warmblood warmer warminst warp warrant warren warrendal warrenvill warrington wash wash-wat washer washer/compactor washer/press washington washpactor washtrough wast waste-activ waste-deriv waste-tec waste-tech wastebust wasteland wastemast wastewarrior wastewat water water-bas water-bear water-form water-in-oil water-intens water-solubl water-wash water/air water/wastewater waterbett waterbodi waterborn waterbox watercours wateri waterkar waterless waterlink waterlink/aero-mod waterlink/barnebey waterloo watermak watersh watersweet watertight watertow watertown watertub waterway 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