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ADVANCED PLACEMENT AMERICAN HISTORY
IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNIT VII

Red Scare, Palmer raids
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans fearing Communism associated labor violence with the Russian revolution. In January 1920, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer commenced a series of raids in 33 cities that broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. Four thousand "Communists" were jailed; some were deported. Communist Party membership declined by 80%.

Harding scandals: Teapot Dome
The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which illegally leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denby, and Interior Secretary Albert Fall were forced to resign.

Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially for the wealthy while ignoring middle-income Americans. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.

McNary-Haugen Bill, vetoes
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. Twice Coolidge vetoed it. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.

Henry L. Mencken
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class. The Baltimore Sun sent him to cover the Scopes Trial.

F. Scott Fitzgerald
Most critics regard The Great Gatsby as his finest work. It was written in 1925, and tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.

Sinclair Lewis
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.

Ernest Hemingway
An American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. He was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris. Also considered part of the “Lost Generation.” He received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea.

Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act, passed in 1919, defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Strongly opposed in eastern cities. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.

Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to oppose the forces changing America and to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley States. Its peak membership came in 1924 at three million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.

Immigration Acts, 1921, ...

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Keywords

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